PSY 034 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: New Culture Movement, Needs Assessment, Radical Change

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27 Jul 2016
Lecture 16 and 17 – Organizational Development
Organizational Development
Many businesses were founded in early 20th century
Many rapid changes:
Use computers into work
Changing cultural diversity of the workforce
Emergence of advanced communication technologies
Globalization of business
Economic changes
A system of planned interventions designed to change an organization’s structure and /or
processes to achieve a higher level of functioning
Sacred Cow Hunts
Kriegel and Breandt (1996): first step towards organizational change
Organization wide attempt to get rid of practices that serve no useful purpose
Why are we doing it?
What if it didn't exist?
How and when did we start doing this?
Can it be done better by another person department or company?
Types of Sacred-Cow Hunts
The Paper Cow – lots of memos and use of paper
The Meeting Cow things that take away time, energy, for example: way to identify if all
the meetings are necessary, put the cost next to the meeting to save time, energy, and
The Speed Cow – are those deadlines really necessary? Deadlines lead employees to work
quicker causing more mistakes, ex: postpone deadlines, share the work into team
Employee Acceptance of Change
Employees are usually reluctant to change
Three stages of change
Organizational Changes (Lewin, 1958)
Unfreezing: convince change is necessary
Moving: move organization to the desired stage (transitional stage)
Refreezing: develop ways to keep change in place, freeze them in that stage
Carnall (2008): 5 employee stages
Defense – defending their position, trying to justify their reasoning
Discarding – start accepting the inevitable change
Adaptation – adapt to the change
Internalization – internalize the process
Extent to which employees readily accept and handle change is dependent on
Reason behind the change – if they understand the reason they wont be as resistant
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Financial reasons
External mandates
Productivity improvement
Everybody else is doing it
Leader making the change – employees’ acceptance of change depends on them
Degree of respect
History of successful change
Personality of the person being changed
Change agents – people who always wanna change because they like changing
Change analyst – if a change is needed they would do it, if it is not necessary then fuck
Receptive changers will not instigate the change but wont go against it, actually
would help (high self control, productivity)
Reluctant changers – reluctant, but in the end they accept it
Change resisters – oppose the change actively, do not like change
The Type of Change
Evolutionary – keeping up with time, updating the systems
Revolutionary go from none process to another, they want to be an innovator to the
market, radical change
Implementing Change
Creating an atmosphere for change
Communicating details
Training is needed
Two-way communication
Honesty is essential
Time frame
Training needs
Organizational Culture
Steps to Changing Culture:
Creating dissatisfaction with existing culture
Assessing the new culture
Maintaining the new culture
Selecting new employees
Assessing the New Culture
Needs assessment
Determining executive direction
Implementation considerations
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