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PSYC10300 (1)


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Ithaca College

The Biology of Mind and Behavior Genotype/Phenotype ● Genotype- one’s actual genetic makeup ● Phenotype- what gets expressed ● Epigenome- can turn “on” genes that will be expressed and turn “off” genes that won’t ○ can change over lifetime/experiences The Neuron ● The basic unit of the Nervous System ● specialized to receive, process, and/or send information to other cells ● Anatomy of a Neuron ○ Dendrite: short branches, receive stimuli ○ Cell Body: contains nucleus and organelles ○ Axon: elongated fiber that goes from the cell body to the terminal buttons ○ Myelin sheath: insulates axon and helps transmit information faster ○ Terminal buttons: sends signal to other neurons ○ Synapse: small gap at the end of a neuron that allows information to be passed from one neuron to the next ■ neurotransmitters are synthesized from precursors then stored in vesicles ■ action potential cause vesicles into the synapse ■ released neurotransmitters bind to other neuron’s receptors ■ reuptake ● Brain circuit: a set of neurons that affect one another ● 3 major classes: Sensory, Motor, Interneurons ○ Sensory (Afferent) Neurons ■ Receive information; send to brain ■ Somatosensory neurons- receive information from muslces ○ Motor (Efferent) Neurons ■ Send information from spinal cord to muscles and glands ○ Interneurons ■ connect sensory, motor, and interneurons ■ “middle man” ● All or none law: if a neuron is sufficiently stimulated (threshold is met) it FIRES ○ either action potential occurs or not Neurotransmitters ● All affect thoughts, behaviors, emotions differently ● Specific neurotransmitters for specific neurons ● Major neurotransmitters: Serotonin, Glutamate, Acetylcholine, Dopamine, GABA ○ Serotonin- regulates mood and sleep ■ Shortage: OCD, insomnia, depression, alcohol abuse ■ Excess: sleepiness, lack of motivation ○ Glutamate- Learning, Memory, enhances action potential ■ Shortage: learning disorder, lethargy ■ Excess: Schizophrenia, damage neurons ○ Acetylcholine- enables muscle contraction, memory ■ Shortage: alzheimer's, delusions ■ Excess: convulsions, spasms, tremors ○ Dopamine- motivation, reward, pleasure, movement, thought ■ Shortage: parkinson’s, ADHD, depression ■ Excess: aggression, schizophrenia ○ GABA- inhibits the sending neuron ■ Shortage: anxiety, epilepsy ■ Excess: sluggishness, lack of motivation Effects of Drugs in the B
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