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Lecture 9

BSC 196 Lecture 9: lab lecture 9

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Biological Sciences
BSC 196

 Arose in the oceans over 1.4 billion years ago.  Colonized land over 500 MYA.  Difficult to assess fossils, as soft bodies don’t fossilize well.  Increased in diversity (and size) on land.  Fungi are mostly chemoheterotrophs.  Can be multicellular or unicellular.  Most species are sessile: no active movement.  Fungi are decomposing or parasitic saprophytes:  Grow upon their food, secrete digestive enzymes, absorb nutrients.  Despite appearances, fungi are more closely related to animals than they are to plants.  Fungi are essential decomposers.  Some fungi parasitize animals and plants (rusts, bights, smuts, ergot).  In humans: athlete’s foot, ringworm.  Fungal fruiting bodies are often edible (morels, truffles, mushrooms).  Some may be toxic, however.  Yeast create CO in2the process of anaerobic (without O ) f2rmentation.  Used to make alcoholic drinks, cheese, yogurt, vinegar, pickles, leaven bread.  Penicillin and other fungus-derived chemicals are important antibiotics.  Fungal cell walls are made of strong flexible chitin, not cellulose.  Like plants, fungi have large surface area: volume ratios  Helps absorb nutrients.  Most multicellular fungi are made of hyphae, long strands of cells.  Hyphae form a feeding body, the mycelium (plural mycelia).  Structures visible above ground are the fruiting body (reproductive).  Fungi need to spread in order to colonize scarce food resources.  Decomposable food is widely spread in nature.  Must disperse widely in large numbers.  Catch the wind like pollen of seed plants.  Multicellular fungi reproduce via spores, produced sexually or asexually.  Unicellular fungi reproduce asexually by budding.  Unlike mitosis, this may not evenly subdivide the cytoplasm of the resulting cells.  Chytrids  Smallest and simplest fungi.  The oldest and most basal fungal division.  Mostly aquatic parasites  Gametes have flagella for movement. 
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