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Lecture 18

BSC 219 Lecture 18: Lecture 18

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Illinois State University
Biological Sciences
BSC 219

Probabilities Probability Probability: how likely an outcome is to occur Quantified as a number 0 to 1 Higher the probability the more likely the outcome Product Law: probability of independent events occurring together is the product of the probabilities of the individual events Used to determine the probability of two or more independent events occurring Seen as AND so smaller number Sum Law: states the probability of either of two mutually exclusive events occurring is the sum of their individual probabilities Used to determine the probability of two or more mutually exclusive events occurring Seen as OR so bigger number Binomial Shortcut Seen as an equation N= total number of events (ex: kids) S= number of times outcome 1 occurs T= number of times outcome 2 occurs A= probability of outcome 1 (ex: a boy) B= probability of outcome 2 (ex: a girl) Factorial Review 0! = 1 1! = 1 2! = 2 3! = 6 4!= 24 5! = 120 Example: What is the probability that a couple will have 2 boys and 2 girls? N= 4 kids S= 2 boys T= 2 girls A= ½ B= ½ Different Modes of Inheritance Mode of Inheritance: manner in which a particular genetic trait is transmitted from one generation to the next Autosomal dominant, Autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant, X-linked recessive, Cytoplasmic, Imprinting Different modes in a Dihybrid Cross Expect unusual ratios when examining different traits with different modes of inheritance Normally, a dihybrid cross results in a 9:3:3:1 ratio Example: Blood groups and albinism Use the product law for example: albino and blood type A ¼ chance of being albino ¼ chance of blood type A overall chance: 1/16 Significance 1. First propose a hypothesis We shrank since the spider is the same size as us 2. An experiment is then performed to determine if the hypothesized results are observed (deviation from the hypothetical results is expected due to chance) We measure the spider (height, weight, body length, leg length) 3. Observations are made and the deviation is measured The spider weighs .5 lbs and the average spider weighs .3 lbs 4. We then use a method to determine if the a
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