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Lecture 4

BSC 196 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Point Mutation, Sexual Reproduction, Mutation


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BSC 196
Professor
sakaluk
Lecture
4

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Variation
Variation in heritable traits is a prerequisite for evolution
Sources of phenotypic variation:
Genetic: differences in genes
Environment
Natural selection can only act on variation that’s heritable (if a trait is not heritable, it
won’t be passed down)
Sources of genetic variation:
Mutation
Leads to new alleles and new genes
Sexual reproduction
Creates genetic variation by producing novel combinations of existing
alleles
Origin of genetic variation:
mutation - mistake made during DNA copying process
Origin of variation and mechanism of change
i) point- source of new alleles
ii) chromosomal- source of new genes, species
Point mutation: change in one of the nucleotide bases.
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Point Mutation:
Effects of point mutations:
Effects can vary
Silent (neutral) mutations no effect.
Mutations that result in a change of protein are often harmful
Harmful mutations can be hidden from selection in recessive alleles
Mutations that result in change in protein production can sometimes be
beneficial
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