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Lecture 5

BSC 197 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: C-Terminus, N-Terminus, Lysozyme


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BSC 197
Professor
Wade Nichols
Lecture
5

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Friday, September 2, 2016
Macromolecules
Lipids
-Hydrophobic molecules
Carbons bound to hydrogens are not polar
-Most often found as fatty-acid
Carboxyl group at one end
Carbon/hydrogen chain
-Chain may be saturated or unsaturated
-Saturated means that each carbon (except the carboxyl carbon) is bound to the
maximum number of hydrogen atoms
Fats
-Used primarily as a long term method of energy storage
-Saturated fats are linear molecules and thus able to pack in more tightly and are solid
at room temp
Animal fats tend to contain saturated lipids
Has a double bond and chain is not straight
-Unsaturated fats have angles and do not pack in tightly. They are liquid at room temp
Plant fats contain unsaturated fats
Fats that are liquid at room temp are called oils
Has a kink in it due to a double bond (one double bond is monounsaturated)
-Structure of fats
Carboxyl on end, chain of carbons and attached are hydrogens
Three fatty acid chains bound to a glycerol backbone (triaclyglycerol)
Formed by dehydration reaction
Fatty acids are bound to glycerol by ester linkages
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Friday, September 2, 2016
Phospholipids
Major component of cell membranes
Contain hydrophilic domain that contains phosphate (and other hydrophilic
structure)
Contains hydrophobic domain of lipid chains
Amphipathic Molecules
Contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains
Tend to aggregate with hydrophobic domains turned together and hydrophilic
domais turned outward
-Can for bilayers or micelle structures
-Bilayers are essential for membrane structure
Hormones
Derived from cholesterol molecules
Used as global regulators in biology
-Send signals to distant cells to affect behavior
Are complicated ring structures
Are essential for homeostasis
Summary
-Non-polar molecules that are hydrophobic
-Typically found as fatty acids (Contain carboxyl group at end of a hydrocarbon chain)
-Can be saturated or unsaturated
-Are used for long-term energy storage
-Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules that are essential for membrane structure
-Are the basis for hormone structure
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