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COM 229

Lecture 8/22/12 Organizations Five Critical features • Existence of social collectivity- group of people who share a similar ideology o Are people waiting for a bus an organization? o No, not wearing “bus-rider” shirts • Organizational and Individual goals- don’t have to be identical, but should be able to coexist o Need to be parallel, but can be different o Football team (Win Bowl) vs. Quarterback (Throw good passes) • Coordinating Activity- coordinative action • Embeddedness or org. among other organizations- interdependence o Interdependence: each member’s existence is necessary for function o Ex/ Army and Stark Industries o Ex/ Janitor to fix plumbing because you can’t • Organized Structure- hierarchy o Need a leader to coordinate the actions o There has to be someone coordinating the interference o When you spend all your time fighting for power, there is no chance to implement it How are organizations different from groups? • Miller: need all five points • We know that sometimes and org. loses a feature, still works o Ex/ department chair dies, things in place to fix • Lacking one or two, normally a group Changing Nature of Organizations • Globalism o Impact of air travel, shipping, telecommunications • Demographics: classifications of groups of people (age, race, income) o New markets: open because of globalism  Production • Countries can rise up • Paying people is no longer an efficient use of money  outsource, what should be done from an economic stand point  Consumption: o New consumers o Changing Definitions  Influences how organizations operate • How they promote, market • How they operate internally  Nuclear family: used to be who lived in household, now is random related/ non-related people, interracial household  College Graduate: not as impressive anymore Modeling communication • SMCR: sender message channel receiver o ??? • Vs. Transmission (aka trans active): o constant two way communication o You send message…. ?? • Constitutive (aka constructivist)  EXAM QUESTION o A process of producing and reproducing shared meaning Lecture 8/27/12 Classical Approaches to Org. Comm Industrial Revolution Changes communication, EITC Fayol’s Classical Management Theory • Elements of Management: the “what” of managerial work o Planning: looking to future to determine best way to attain goals o Organizing: arrangement of human resource and evaluation of those employees o Command: managers set tasks for employees to meet org. goals o Coordination: Separate activities are coordinated o Control: comparison between goals and activities to ensure org. is functioning in planned manner  How do we use them to our advantage? Take make ourselves work effectively • Early 20 Century o Industrial Revolution o WWI (stable geography) Peon Peon • Principles of Org. Structure o How does Fayol view the organization?  Scalar/vertical structure/hierarchy • Manager is in charge/ at top of hierarchy • ONLY vertical down Peon does not talk to manager, should be fired o How does Fayol view the worker?  Specialized tasks (assembly line)  Worker is replaceable  Make simple Weber’s Bureaucracy • Similarities (and contemporary) to Fayol o Hierarchy o Division of Labor o Centralization • How does Weber view the org? o Closed system: not looking at outside forces  Not looking at health department, just look at inner workings • How does Weber view the manager? (What gives them power?) o Traditional (legitimate): someone with greater power says it is so  Teacher is in charge because your schedule says so o Charismatic: We choose to follow them because we like them  One Direction isn’t acclaimed, but we still love them <3 o Rational/Expertise: You are qualified for the position, impersonal  Teacher has a degree and was hired because of this • How does Weber view the rules? o Rules should establish the procedures for ALL contingencies Taylor’s Scientific Management • What makes a good worker? How do we train them well? • Early 20 century o WWI o Full swing Industrial Age birth of large corporations (production oriented) o Challenged by uneven work (7 vs. 10 bricks) and systematic soldiering (someone sets a descending curve) • How does Taylor view the organization? o Focuses not on org. structure, but on control o Manager’s job to encourage/teach efficiency • How does Taylor view the worker? o Proper selection of workers: right worker for the right job o Training Workers o Time and Motion studies: one best way to do every job • How does Taylor view reward? o Objective pay standards o Piece Rate: rate of pay is given by amount of work you complete  To get over uneven work and systematic soldiering  Gets workers to use more efficient way • Elements of Management o Strict Division of management/labor  Keeps control up  Led to union disputes 8/29/12 Focus on Productivity Focus on Members Focus Traditional Paradigm (classical Interpretive Paradigm on approach) • symbolic Interaction Process • classical approaches (Putnam) (structur (Fayol) • Sense making (Weick) e) • Bureaucracy (weber) • Scientific Management (Taylor) Focus Critical Paradigm Dialogic Paradigm on • reformist (DiMaggio) • constructionist (mumby & Comm. • unity of workers (deetz, Putnam) Mumby) Communication in Classical Approaches Content of Communication Task Communication Flow Vertical(downward) Mode/Channel Primarily written • Interpersonal, divides management/labor Formal Style • Establishes power • What does this organization look like? o Centralized o One controls the many o Vertical, little feedback • Does the communication create the structure or vice versa? o Structure (process) guides the communication that follows Lecture 9/5/12 Chapter 3 Human Relations: Focusing on the Worker • Human relation approaches focus on the worker, specifically increasing motivation to work/produce o Change from classical by downplaying management control and increasing worker’s drive o What motivates you? • Hawthorne Studies o Elton Mayo’s series at the Hawthorne plant  Started from classical management theory o Illumination studies: designed to determine the influence of lighting level on worker productivity  unless near darkness, didn’t make a difference, productivity increased  Someone is finally watching o Assembly Line  Tested physical/economic conditions; found social satisfaction better predictor of output o Effect: Identified social factors as influence on outcome • Maslow’s Hierarchy o Self- Actualization (become all one is capable of becoming) o Esteem Needs (sense of achievement and accomplishment) o Social Needs (belonging) o Safety Needs o Physiological Needs • McGregor’s Theories o Theory X: people are unmotivated and lazy,  Minimal work necessary  extrinsically: outside motivation ex/money, fear of discipline  managers seek to control workers o Theory Y: enjoys working, exercising, creativity, & ambition  internally self-motivated, intrinsically  If you do your job well, we give you more responsibility  Managers seek to encourage/nurture workers  Satisfice o Differences in Managers and employees  Y Manager, X employee • I got here this way, you should too  X Manager, Y employee • Can be BIG communicative conflicts • Principles o Worker Satisfaction Job Satisfaction  Productivity 9/10/12 Human Resources Human Relations making employees happy over 1 Concern for Production 9 1 Concern for People 9 Impoverished Country Club Team Authority- Compliance Middle-of-the-Road “employee relations” Vs. Human Resources views employees still as resource, but they want to make sure they’re happy in order to be productive • Blake and Mouton’s Managerial grid o Advocated team leader o B&M considered maximizing human resources o Likert conceptualized organizational form and structure as critical • Whats of HR o Programs emphasizing team management and employee involvement  Goal: creating knowledge-enabled organization o Often structured by structural and organizational issues (not sessions) • Hows of HR o Total Quality Management (TQM) o All organizational members work to improve processes and products  Know when team-management is appropriate  Consider upper management  Address resistance to change  Create a common language • Pfeffer’s Seven Practices 1. Employment Security a. Reinforces commitment to those understanding the organization 2. Selective hiring a. Based on POFit, to increase retention of performance 3. Self-Managed teams and decentralization a. Employees collaborate across hierarchy to enhance control and process 4. Comparatively high and contingent Compensation a. Connect performance with rewards 5. Extensive Training a. Enable and empower employees to identify and solve problems 6. Reduction of status differences a. Reducing inequalities make all feel values 7. Sharing Information Classical vs. Humanistic Scientific management Human Relations View workers as… And implicit means to an end A resource Vew communication as… Means of control Means of enabling workers Control via… Punishment Reward Manage followers via… Fear/compliance Motivation/achievement The organization seeks to… Produce Produce 9/12/12 Systems Approaches • Systems Theories o Built on an organismic (rather than mechanistic) metaphor o Everything is connected- change one; change everything • Interdependence o Elements are mutually-reliant on each other Systems Components • Hierarchical ordering o Systems and subsystems  Unlike classic, superordinate rely on subordinates • They both have power and necessity • Interdependence o Functioning of one system relies on the other o Stakeholders need to be considered • Permeability o Lower boundaries allow information, materials, and power to flow both directions o Particularly in a global workforce? Systems Processes • Input (supplies)  Throughout (do something)  Output (product) o Transform raw info/material to products/service/info o Exchange: required to obtain/rid input/output o Feedback : required to manage throughput processes  Corrective: (aka deviation-reducing) Feedback  Positive/Growth (aka deviation-amplifying) Feedback Systems Properties • Holism o Sum > Parts o Classical saw “A+A+A= 3A” ; Systems sees “A+A+A=B” • Equifinality o Different paths to same ending (ex/ ruler and building) • Negative Entropy o Ability to sustain and grow • Requisite Variety o Diversity within must match the diversity outside of system Weick’s organizing • Organizations exist within an environment o Ex/ ISU exists within normal community, graduate department, etc. • Sense making o Individuals in a org. sensemake (seek to make sense of) their environment and therefore enact it o Goal or organization seeks to reduce equivocality  Assembly Rules: Procedures to guide sensemaking  Communication Cycles: Use of communication o Results  Retention: effective sensemaking; rules/cycles saved for future as causal maps  Else, try new rule 9/17/12 “New Science” Theories • Assumes systems may not seek equilibrium • Chaos, Complexity, and Self-Organizing Systems theories • Importance of: o Relationships (individuals, org. components) o Participation ( o Organizational change and instability o Being open to the information environment Network Analysis • What is it? o Defining and analyzing relationships among actors • Properties o Nodes: individual actors at level of interest o Links/Tides: how actors connect to other actors, community, etc.  “Bridges: how two points are tied together within groups that don’t have much communication • Not every tie is a bridge, but every bridge is a tie o Mode: how communication occurs o Density: the strength of the tie o Level of Analysis • Study o Process vs. Influence Modeling & Case Analyses • Modeling o Computer simulations  Benefits: can see how things might work out  Shortcomings: the program only knows as much as you tell it • Case Analyses o Historical look and reflection at behavior  Benefits: show successes/failures  Shortcomings: does not show all outcomes, may not work/may work in the time 9/19/12 Culture • Culture as Prescriptive o Culture as something an organization “has”  Inherently manifested in the organization o Ex/ Deal and Kenedy’s “Strong Cultures”  Values: beliefs/visions  Heroes: exemplary individuals  Rites & Rituals: ceremonies  Cultural Network: system transmitting culture • These can come in play and help culture/organization • Culture as Descriptive o Cultures are complicated  Multiple levels (formal to water coolers)  Ex/ seeing teacher in class vs. Starbucks o Cultures are emergent o Cultures aren’t unitary  Many cultures coexist • Vertical (across hierarchy) vs. Horizontal (w/ hierarch) vs. Specific workgroup cultures o Cultures are ambiguous 9/24/12 Miller: Schein’s definition of culture: a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaption and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid, and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems “ -similar to sensemaking Defining Culture (Schein) • Culture as a Group phenomenon o Can you have culture without a group? No • Culture as a pattern of basic assumptions o How do you establish behaviors?  Ex/ Boss walks around at noon and socialized, then when we get up we say hi to him too o Change them?  Same behaviors • Culture as Emergent/developmental process o Who exerts internal/external change?  New employees, etc. • Importance of Socialization o How do new members integrate old and new cultures?  First days are CRITICAL Schein Model of Culture • Artifacts o Physical and social environment  Ex/ brown shirts, brown shorts= UPS  Employee of the month parking spot • Espoused Values o Individual and group values o Don’t want to do good, want them to not do evil  Ex/ ISU has access to all our lives, and we hope they don’t use it • Basic Assumptions o Core beliefs about the world and its workings 9/26/12 Critical Approaches … POWER • Marx o Critique reveals truths, leading to revolution o Looks at connection between power and social structure • Social Structures/processes  power imbalances o Power imbalances oppressions o Identify and liberate oppressed groups  Ex/ unions• Power o Traditional approach  Power is stable; explores how power manifests • Ex/ office space “working to???” o Symbolical Approach  Power is product of communication and relationshps; how power is constructed • Ex/ avengers constructed from Iron Man because he is a philanthropists, etc. • Relationships with public, who is more approachable? o Radical /Critical Approach  How economic/ Social/comm. Structures create power/relationships o Ideology  Assumptions of reality influence perceptions of situations and events o Hegemony  Maintenance of domination o Emancipation  Goal of critical model is liberation; help remove control • V for vendetta ending o Resistance  How we push back against exertions of power • 1776- ???? • Feminist Theory o What is a woman?  Idea of femininity and masculinity  Feminine: enticing you to figure out what they want you to do  Masculine: telling you what to do o Work approaches are typically masculine o Classical management theory- who is in charge? Manager aka Wealthy man • Theory of Concertive Control o How does power manifest? o Attempts to explain how power relationships can be transformed in an era of team- based and “alternative form” organizations o Control  Simple Control: direct and authoritarian exertion of control in the workplace  Technological control: control exerted through technological workplace processes  Bureaucratic control: based on power of hierarchical structure and the rational-legal rules  Concertive control: comment box  Cohersive Power o Identification  Wanting to identify with a group  When individual identifies with an organization or a work group that individual take on the concerns of the org. or group and accepts those concerns as his or her own  Deindividuation: when you are part of the group, no longer individualized o Discipline  Through communicative interaction, work groups develop techniques to reward and punish behavior that conforms with or deviates from the values identified as important by the work group  Make it a pattern of behavior  Silence, social pressure, direct criticism 10/3/12 Assimilation Process • Phases of Socialization o Anticipatory Socialization  Learning about work  Learning about specific jobs and responsibilities  Learning about organization • Dependent on where you work and who you work for, learn culture o Encounter Phase  Releasing old roles, values, expectations  Learning about new role o Metamorphosis  Accept and adjust to new role, values • Battle tensions of old roles and new roles  Assimilation into the new organization • Assimilation o The interview as…  Screening • Assess PJ Fit (personal job fit: have skills, ect. To fit job) ensure sufficient KSAs  Information- Gathering • Ensure match between employer-employee • Person- Organization fit  Socialization • Realistic Job Previews (RJPs)  Role Development: • Role Taking o sampling o Here is your job, here is your duty, this is what we need you to do o May evolve into.. • Role Making o Creation of new roles o Ex/ flower deliverer o Expand upon the bounds of what your role entailed • Role Ro
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