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Lecture 9

NUR 229 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Pap Test, Chronic Condition, Nursing Process

Mennonite College of Nursing
Course Code
NUR 229
Blanca Miller

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Health and Illness: Nurs 229
In-Class Notes:
1. Health: state of physical, mental, and social well being, doesn’t mean that there is an
absence in disease; Ex: someone with epilepsy can still be happy
2. Morbidity: how frequently a disease occurs
3. Mortality: number of deaths resulting from the disease
4. ***Illness Behaviors
a. Stage 1: Experience Symptoms how people define themselves as sick;
symptoms that may go away and they can return to their daily activities; may need
some self-care like OTC medications
b. Stage 2: Assuming Sick Role define yourself as ‘sick’, person may continue to
self-treat, look at other resources (googling things on Internet)
c. Stage 3: Assuming Dependent Role: see HCP, accept diagnosis/treatment, follow
plan of care
d. Stage 4: Achieving Recovery/Rehabilitation: The person gives up the dependent
role and resumes normal activities and responsibilities; if the plan of care includes
health education, the person may return to health at a higher level of functioning
and health than before the illness
5. Health Promotion: person is motivated to reach their maximum health potential
6. ***Levels of Health Promotion
a. Primary: preventing the development of a disease (Ex: getting a flu shot, wearing
seat belts, car seats)
b. Secondary: focuses on early diagnosis of a disease and get early treatment; patient
will have a higher chance of getting back to high level of functioning (Ex: pap
smear, mammogram, family history; patient is diagnosed with heart failure)
c. Tertiary: patient needs additional treatment (Ex: long-term care to manage heart
failure, may need chemotherapy/support group if diagnosed with cancer)
7. ***Maslow’s Hierarchy of Basic Human Needs:
a. Physiologic: Anything you need to sustain life; oxygen, water, elimination
i. Nursing Intervention: taking vital signs, pulse ox
b. Safety/Security: protect the patient from actual/potential harm
i. Nursing Intervention: hand-hygiene to prevent from infection, fall
prevention steps
c. Love & Belonging: accepting the patient for who they are
i. Nursing Interventions: building a nurse-client relationship including
teaching plan/plan of care
d. Self-Esteem Needs: the patient needs to feel good about themselves/have a sense
of pride
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i. Nursing Interventions: treating them with dignity, keeping them well-
groomed/cared for, respecting their beliefs/values, helping patient
set/achieve obtainable goals
e. Self-Actualization Needs: need for patient to fulfill their highest potential
i. Nursing Interventions: respecting the patient, achieving goals that are set,
focus on their strengths/possibilities
1. Describe concepts and models of health, wellness, and illness.
2. Compare and contrast acute illness and chronic illness
3. Explain how the human dimensions, basic human needs, and self-concept influence health and illness
4. Explain the levels of preventive care
5. Describe each level of Maslow’s hierarchy of basic human needs.
6. Explain nursing care necessary to meet needs for each level of Maslow’s hierarchy
7. Discuss the factors that play a role in disparities in healthcare
8. Use the nursing process as a framework to promote and maintain health of the individual as a
member of a family and as a member of the community
Key Terms
1. Acute illness: rapidly occurring illness that runs its course, allowing a person to return to
one’s previous level of functioning
2. Chronic illness: irreversible illness that causes permanent physical impairment and
requires long-term health care
3. Disease: pathologic change in the structure or function of the body/mind
4. Exacerbation: period in chronic illness when the symptoms of the disease reappear
5. Health: state of optimal functioning or well-being
6. Health disparity: a specific difference that is closely linked to social, economic, and/or
environmental disadvantage
7. Health promotion: behavior of an individual motivated by a personal desire to increase
well-being and health potential
8. Holistic care: health care that takes into account the whole person interacting in the
9. Illness: abnormal process in which any aspect of the person’s functioning is altered
10. Morbidity: frequency that a disease occurs
11. Mortality: number of deaths
12. Remission: period in a chronic illness when the disease is present, but the person does not
experience symptoms of the disease
13. Risk factor: something that increases a person’s chance for illness or injury
14. Wellness: an active process in which an individual progress toward the maximum
possible potential, regardless of current state of health
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15. Basic human needs: something essential to the health and survival of humans; common to
all people
16. Love and belonging needs: understanding and acceptance of others in giving and
receiving love
17. Physiological needs: needs for oxygen, food, water, temperature, elimination, sexuality,
activity, and rest; these needs have the highest priority and are essential for survival
18. Safety and security needs: person’s needs to be protected from actual/potential harm and
to have freedom from fear
19. Self-actualization needs: highest level on the hierarchy of needs, which includes the need
for individuals to reach their full potential thru development of their unique capabilities
20. Self-esteem needs: need to feel good about oneself and to believe others hold one in high
Holistic care Page 43
Care that addresses the many dimensions that comprise the whole person, the nurse must
understand and respect each person’s own definition of health and responses to illness
The nurse’s knowledge of health and illness is even more important because of today’s
focus on health promotion and advocacy, the continuing trend toward care being
provided in the home and community, the increasing numbers of older adults, the
growing incidence of chronic illnesses, and the ongoing efforts to maximize health care
outcomes for all populations
Concepts of health and wellness Page 43-45
1. Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of
disease or infirmity
- Morbidity is how frequently a disease occurs
- Mortality is the numbers of deaths resulting from a disease
2. Wellness is a term often used interchangeably with health- an active state of being healthy,
including living a lifestyle that promotes good physical, mental, and emotional health
Classification of illness Page 46-47
Acute illness: Has a rapid onset of symptoms and lasts only a relatively short time; some
are life-threatening; with self-treatment and use of OTC medications, simple acute
illnesses such as the common cold or diarrhea don’t require medical treatment
Chronic illness: Broad term that encompasses many different physical and mental
alterations in health, with one or more of the following characteristics: permanent change,
causes irreversible alterations in normal anatomy and physiology, requires special patient
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