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Lecture

Psychology_Chapter_1_Study_Guide

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 110
Professor
All

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Description
Chapter 1The goals of psychologyDescribe explain predict and influence behavior and mental processesCritical thinkingFoundation of the scientific method and evaluates claims propositions and conclusions to determine whether they follow logicallyBasic researchSeek new knowledge and explore general scientific understandingApplied researchSolves practical problems and improves the quality of life Types of descriptive researchNaturalisticobservationResearches observe and record behavior in its natural setting without influencing or controlling itLaboratory observationStudying behavior in a laboratory rather than its natural settingCase studyA single person or a small population is studied in great depthSurveyResearchers use interviews to gather information about the attitudes beliefs experiences or behaviors of a group of peopleCorrelational MethodEstablishes the degree of relationship between two characteristics events or behaviorsSamplePart of a population that is studied in order to reach conclusions about the entire populationPopulationThe entire group of interest to researchersConfounding variablesFactors or conditions other than the independent variable that are not equivalent across groups and that could cause differences among the groups with respect to the dependent variableSelection biasParticipants are assigned to experimental or control groups in such a way that systematic differences among the groups are presented at the beginning of the experimentExperimenter biasOccurs when researchers preconceived expectations become a selffulfilling prophecy and cause the researchers to find what they expect to findClever HansThe horse could count if the experimenter watched his feetThe placebo effectOccurs when participants response to a treatment is due to hisher expectations about the treatment rather than to the treatment itselfieA person is afraid of screaming on a roller coaster goes on one screams because of the expectation rather than the ride itselfChapter 2NeuronSpecialized cells that conduct impulses through the nervous systemIt controls our thoughts feelings and behavior
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