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Lecture 2

PSY 110 Lecture 2: Psyhologyunit2notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 110
Professor
Nauta
Lecture
2

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I.OperantConditioning
A.Reinforcement/punishmentschedules
1.Continuousreinforce/punisheveryinstanceofthebehavior
a.Canleadtosatiation
b.Learningandextinctionoccurrapidly
2.Partialonlyreinforce/punishsomeinstancesofthebehavior
a.Learningtakeslonger
b.Butismoreresistanttoextinction
3.FourSchedules:
a.FixedRatio
i.Reinforce/punisheverynthinstanceofthebehavior
ii.e.g.,$1forevery10itemsproduced
b.FixedInterval
i.Reinforce/punishbehaviorafterXamountoftime
ii.e.g.,paycheckafter2weeksofwork,mostclassexams
iii.Runandpauseeffect
c.VariableRatio
i.Reinforce/punishafteranunpredictablenumberofbehaviors
ii.e.g.,slotmachine
iii.Producesrapid,steadyresponses
d.VariableInterval
i.Reinforce/punishaftervaryingtimeintervals
ii.e.g.,popquizzes
iii.Producesslow,steadyresponses
B.CharacteristicsofOC
1.Howit’saquired:
a.Learningusuallytakesplaceovertime
b.Reinforce/punishermustberelevant
c.Shapingreinforcesmallstepstowardthedesiredbehavior
i.Necessaryifbehaviorneveroccursonitsown
ii.Reinforcementisgenerallymoreeffectivethanpunishment
iii.Reinforcement+punishmenttogether=best
2.Extinction
a.”Unlearn”anOCassociationbyremovingreinforcersorpunishers
b.Expectatemporaryincreaseinbehaviorafterattemptstoextinguishit
c.Then,ifnoreinforcementoccurs,behaviorwilleventuallydisappear
d.Toextinguishbehavior,havetoidentifyandremoveALLreinforcers
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