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Lecture 7

PSY 213 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Intelligence Quotient, Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, Metacognition

Course Code
PSY 213
Alycia Hund

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Chapter 7 Notes
I. Piagets Theor
1. Sensorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational
Concrete Operational Stage
o 7-11 years; Major turning point in cognitive development (emergence of
operations); thought is flexible, logical & organized when applied to concrete
information (items physically present)
Characteristics of Concrete Operational Thought
i. Conservation- children pass conservation tasks
1. Decentration- solutions take more than one dimension into account
2. Reversibility- able to imagine operations in reverse
3. Seriation- ordering items along quantitative dimension; concrete
operational child can place items in order, passing the seriation task
4. Classification- understanding hierarchial classes/relations
Limitation of Concrete Operational Thought: Children think in organized,
logical fashion only when dealing with concrete information
II. Information Processing Changes
1. Memory Strategies: deliberate mental activities used to increase likelihood of
i. Improve with age, especially during middle childhood
ii. Rehearsal: repeating information: consistent and helpful by 7-8 years
iii. Elaboration: deep processing, such as thinking of examples or relating to
other details
1. Rarely appears before 11 years; very effective
2. Metacognition: awareness & understanding of thought; monitor effectiveness of
strategies & progress toward goal; expands greatly during middle childhood
III. Intelligence: reasoning & problem solving; verbal & quantitative abilities
1. Verbal Subscales
i. Similarities: A child must think logically and abstractly to answer a number of
questions about how things might be similar
ii. Coprehesio: This susale is desiged to easure a idiiduals
judgment and common sense
2. Nonverbal Subscales
i. Block Design: A child must assemble a set of multicolored blocks to match
designs that the examiner shows. Visual-motor coordination, perceptual
organization, and the ability to visualize spatially are assessed.
3. Garders Theor of Multiple Itelligees: 9 idepedet fraes of id
i. Linguistic: Knowing the meanings of words, having the ability to use words to
understand new ideas, and using language to convey ideas to others
ii. Logical-mathematical: Understanding relations that exist among objects,
actions, and ideas as well as the logical or mathematical operations that can
be performed on them
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