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Lecture 7

AGRON 160 Lecture 7: Water Lecture 7

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Iowa State University
Franz Kristie

Intro to Water: Lecture 7 Municipal and Irrigation Water Development California State Water Project • Is a water storage and delivery system of reservoirs, aqueducts, power and pumping plants. Its main purpose is to store water and distribute it to 29 Urban and agricultural water suppliers in California • 70% goes to urban users and 30% goes to agricultural users. Delivers to 2/3 of California’s population(25million) and about 750,000 acres of irrigated farmland • Maintained and operated by the California Department of water Resources Operated to improve water quality in the delta, control Feather River flood waters, provide recreation, and enhance fish and wildlife • Size o 34 storage facilities, reservoirs and lakes o 20 pumping plants o 4 pumping-generating plants o 5 hydroelectric power plants o 701 miles of open canals and pipelines New York Water Supply System • History o Early Manhattan settlers: shallow privately-owned wells o 1677: First public well o 1776: reservoir on the east side of Broadway between Pearl and White Streets o 1800: Water pumped from wells sunk near the Collect Pond was distributed through hollow logs ▪ As the population of the City increased, the well water became polluted and supply was insufficient o Mid 1800: water from the Croton River was impounded, and an aqueduct built o 1883: a second aqueducts from the Croton watershed as well as additional storage reservoirs was added o 1905: The City decided to develop the Catskill region o 1927: the Board of Water Supply submitted a plan for the development of the upper portion of the Rondout watershed and tributaries of the Delaware River with the State of New York. This project was approved in 1928. o Today: ▪ 3 upstate reservoir systems ▪ 19 reservoirs and three controlled lakes ▪ 580 billion gallons’ total storage capacity ▪ 95% of the total water supply is delivered to the consumer by gravity ▪ About 5% of the water is regularly pumped to maintain desired pressure Municipal water delivery systems o Los Angeles and New York o System of aqueducts o Source is primarily surface water o Water development impacted people living outside the city o As the cities grew, more water was needed o Water projects had the support of state and federal governments o Both needed water to grow o Libya Realized Part of Its great Pipe Dream o o The 4 ancient water aquifers each had estimated capacities ranging between 4,800 and 20,000 cubic kilometers. Most of this water was collected between 38,000 and 14,000 years ago, through some pockets are believed to only be 7,000 years old o By 2011, the time of the NATO-led ware against Libya, 3 phases of the great man-made river project were completed o First and largest: 2 million cubic meters of water a day along a 1,200 KM pipeline to Benghazi and Sirte (aug 1991) o Last 2 phases were scheduled to continue over the next 2 decades, but NATO’s ware on Libya has created uncertain future for projects o Phase II was to deliver one million cubic meters of water a day to the western coastal belt and also supply Tripoli o Water and War o Many foreign nationals who worked on the project returned home when bombing started o In July 211, NATO bombed the Great Man-Made River water supply pipeline near Brega, and destroyed the factory that produces the pips to repair it, claiming it was used as “a military storage facility”. Disrupted water supply for the 70% of the population who depended on the piped supply for personal use and for irrigation Dec 28, 2016 article in Middle East Eye • Dec 2016: meanwhile power blackouts mean people in Libya’s 2 main cities -Tripoli and Benghazi- have to go without water for up to eight hours a day, sometimes longer. • Other parts of the country, including farming regions dependent on the GMR for irrigating crops, are similarly affected. • The giat aquifer system in southern Libya crosses into the territory of Sudan, Egypt and Chad. Already that are reports of wells in Egypt running dry • Gaddafi likes to claim that the GMR was “the eights wonder of the world.” It is in many ways a remarkable eat of engineering but the whole scheme could collapse if the mayhem in Libya continues- resulting in a chronic water crisis affecting millions of people Ames • 1874: one town pump; houses had own well • 1887: fire destroyed downtown • 1888: citizens petitioned city Council for central water works o Fire purposes • 1891: wooden elevated tank, a well and pump house near downtown o Water main and hydrants installed on Main Street • 1924: All water mains in City were tied together o 1.1 million gallon concrete reservoir at treatment plant for iron removal • 12 million gallons per day treatment capacity • 3 elevated water tanks • Source is groundwater (19 wells) • Average 6 million gallons of water per day supplied to Ames o Treated for iron, hardness, chlorinated o Serves 14,000 homes • Ames water recently beat 15 other competitors on taste, clarity, and odor at the Iowa Water Works Association conference • New Water Treatment Plant o Planned for completion in 2017 o Cost estimate $62 million o 15 million gallons per day treatment capacity o Residential Water Rates ▪ About 50 cents/day for single family home • $2.07 per 100 cubic foot o 2007 it was $1.39 per 100 cubic feet • LA Department of water and Power o Cost per hundred cubic feet (HCF) of water (748 gallons) o The more you use the more you pay The Cost of Water • Example: A typical house hold used 400 gallons of water per day (1600 cubic feet/month or 16 units per year) o Cost in Ames: $435/ year o Cost in LA: $925/ year o Cost in Nebraska: $258 • Rate structures differ around the country • Commonly: o The more you use, the higher the price o Businesses, single family homes, and rentals have different rates • Bottled Water o Bottled water = $1.50/16 ounces
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