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AN S 345 (13)
Lecture 6

AN S 345 Lecture 6: Animal Science 345 for Exam Two

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Animal Science
AN S 345
Dr.Nicholas Gabler

Animal Science 345 Exam Two Material February 20, 2017 Fiber Number, Genetics and Sex Wild versus domesticated pigs o Fewer number Domesticated wild o Fewer number Sex o Males have a greater number than females Species dependent (cattle and chickens) Fetal exposure to androgens in utero Mechanisms for Increasing Muscle Fiber Size At the time fibers form Stretch o Stimulus for increasing the length of muscle fibers o Growth in length is stretch induced hypertrophy Bone lengthening o Achieved through sarcomere addition Contractile units are generally added to the end of myofibrils Sarcomere numbers can increase >3X from birth to maturity Protein Degradation and Synthesis Nutritional status and hormones affects protein turnover Increased synthesis and decreased degradation = positive nitrogen balance Mediated through hormones o Insulin (increased nitrogen balance) o Glucagon (decreased nitrogen balance) o Epinephrine (decreased nitrogen balance) o Glucocorticoids (decreased nitrogen balance) o Growth hormone (increased nitrogen balance) Protein synthesis and degradation are under independent controls Increased average daily gain = decreased protein turnover Increased feed efficiency = decreased protein turnover Protein Degradation Three proteolytic systems in muscle that are of key importance o Lysosomal System o Calpain System o Ubiquitinproteasome pathway Contribute to muscle fiber atrophy Unlike protein synthesis, there is no limit to degradation, per se
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