BIOL 211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Bryophyte, Phragmoplast, Cell Plate

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25 May 2016
Plant Evolution
290,000 species (living)
-plant colonization of land enabled other life forms to survive on land
-similar to plant-like protists
-multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic, autotrophs (also similar to algae)
-have cellulose cell walls (similar to algae)
-have chloroplasts with chlorophylls a and b (similar to algae, some dinoflagelates)
-is theorized that land plants evolved from green algae
-researches have identified green algae as the closest relatives of land plants
-example of algae that is similar is Chara
Evidence of close relationship between Chara (algae) and Plants
-both have cellulose-rich walls
-formation of a “phragmoplast” during cytokinesis (cell plate to divide cells)
-plasmodesmata (distinctive intercellular connections)
-similar chloroplasts
-DNA sequence similarities
1. Desiccation- loss of water to the air
-plant leaves have cuticles – a waxy coating
-stomata allow for gas exchange
-cuticle also protects from UV radiation
2. Providing support for the body of the organism
- Lignin
- A very complex chemical in plant cell walls that helps keep plants upright
3. Aerial parts of organism not in direct contact with water and mineral nutrients
-vascular tissue
-Aerial parts of organisms not in contact with water and mineral nutrients
-apical meristems:
-localized region of cell division @ tips of shoots and roots (growth and
-these are the plant’s stem cells
-differentiate into various tissues
4. Reproducing in dry environments
-gametes (eggs and sperm) protected from environment
-multicellular, dependent embryos
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