BIOL 211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Bryophyte, Phragmoplast, Cell Plate

62 views3 pages
25 May 2016
Department
Course
Professor
Plant Evolution
Plants
290,000 species (living)
-plant colonization of land enabled other life forms to survive on land
-similar to plant-like protists
-multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic, autotrophs (also similar to algae)
-have cellulose cell walls (similar to algae)
-have chloroplasts with chlorophylls a and b (similar to algae, some dinoflagelates)
-is theorized that land plants evolved from green algae
-researches have identified green algae as the closest relatives of land plants
-example of algae that is similar is Chara
Evidence of close relationship between Chara (algae) and Plants
-both have cellulose-rich walls
-formation of a “phragmoplast” during cytokinesis (cell plate to divide cells)
-plasmodesmata (distinctive intercellular connections)
-similar chloroplasts
-DNA sequence similarities
1. Desiccation- loss of water to the air
-plant leaves have cuticles – a waxy coating
-stomata allow for gas exchange
-cuticle also protects from UV radiation
2. Providing support for the body of the organism
- Lignin
- A very complex chemical in plant cell walls that helps keep plants upright
3. Aerial parts of organism not in direct contact with water and mineral nutrients
-vascular tissue
-Aerial parts of organisms not in contact with water and mineral nutrients
-apical meristems:
-localized region of cell division @ tips of shoots and roots (growth and
elongation)
-these are the plant’s stem cells
-differentiate into various tissues
4. Reproducing in dry environments
-gametes (eggs and sperm) protected from environment
-multicellular, dependent embryos
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows page 1 of the document.
Unlock all 3 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.