BIOL 255 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Gross Anatomy, Histology, Anatomical Pathology

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22 Aug 2016
Unit 1A
Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy: study of structures of body parts, in relation to function and one
Gross/Macroscopic: Seeing with your own eye
Regional- all structures in one body area (such as abdomen or leg)
Systemic- gross anatomy of body studied by system
Surface- study of internal structures as related to overlying skin
Microscopic: too small for the human eye to see
Cytology- study of the cell
Histology- study of tissues
Developmental: traces structural changes throughout life
Embryology- study of developmental changes of body before birth
Comparative: comparing two or more organisms to each other
Physiology- study of functions
Form reflects function
What a structure can do depends on its specific form
Specialized Branches of Anatomy
Pathological anatomy: study of structural changes caused by disease
Radiographic anatomy: the study of internal structures visualized by
electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, MRI, etc.
Surgical anatomy: study of anatomic landmarks used before and after
Levels of Structural Organization
As they decrease in size the increase in complexity
Chemical level- atoms and molecules which form cells
Cellular Level- cells
Tissue Level- Cells form together to form tissue
Organ Level- Tissues have a function forming an organ
Organ System Level- Many organs working together such as the digestive
Organismal Level- All the organ systems working together to form an
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