HD FS 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Egocentrism, Substance Abuse, Gonorrhea

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For 5 points of extra credit, you must provide a definition AND example of all of the words marked by an
asterisk (*). Extra credit must be submitted on “assignment” tab.
ADOLESCENCE – Physical & Cognitive Development
Puberty- the biological changes of adolescence
*Cortisol- the hormone that causes sexual arousal and stress. Ex) If Kolby has too much cortisol, he may be
more high strung and stressed out.
Adolescent growth spurt- the dramatic gain in weight and height during puberty.
Menarche- the first menstrual cycle.
Emotions (changes in)-
Early and late maturation- Early Maturation starts for girls age 7 and boys 9 ½, Late Maturation starts for
girls at age 13 or boys 13 ½.
Secular trend- the trend of growing larger and heavier over the centuries.
Disordered eating (bulimia, obesity, anorexia nervosa)- Bulimia- binging & purging. Anorexia Nervosa-
lack of eating in general and lots of exercise. Obesity- 16% of kids are obese. Overeating and rapid weight gain.
Sexual activity (trends)- First sexual activity is masturbation. By high school, sexual relations are common,
and by age 18, most people (67%) have their virginity.
Contraceptive use- You can use birth control, condoms, but they don’t guarantee protection all the time. There
is the pull out method, but is very ineffective, and then there is abstinence (100% safe.)
Sex education-what type is most effective/least effective- Most effective is safer sex (condoms or birth
control.) Least effective form of sex education is abstinence education, safe sex.
Teenage pregnancy (outcomes of)- 800,000-900,000 adolescent get pregnant as a teen. 1/3 end in abortion, 1/6
end in miscarriage, 5% are adopted, and 2/3 occur outside of marriages.
Binge drinking- Taking 5 or more drinks during a short amount of time.
Substance abuse (including risk factors, prevention, and treatment of)- when you abuse substances to the
point of them taking over your life, causing daily problems with relationships, work, school, etc. Prevention:
focus on the supply of drugs, the environment, the characteristics of the user. Nothing can ever prevent drug
Substance dependence- When you are so physically attached to the drug that you have physical withdrawals
and dependencies in the drug.
*Deductive reasoning- A type of logical reasoning in which one draws logically necessary conclusions from a
general set of premises, or givens. Ex) all baseball players wear helmets when they bat. That would mean the
batter needs to wear a helmet.
*Hypothetical thinking- Thinking about is based on what is possible, and not just what is real. Referred to “if-
then” thinking. Ex) Sarah got in trouble at school, she was hypothetically thinking about the best possible
*Metacognition- Thinking about thinking. Ex) often times in classes you reflect upon your work.
Adolescent egocentrism- The tendency for adolescents to be completely self obsessed.
*Imaginary audience- When adolescents think everybody is watching them. Ex) When a teenager has a zit and
thinks that everybody notices it.
*Personal fable- A person’s belief that they are better than the rules and regulations. Ex) not wearing a seat
Adolescent relativism- the way in which adolescents look at things. They see them as relevant, and are more
likely to rebel.
*Piaget’s view of adolescent thinking and stage- Adolescent stage, formal thinking, thinking consolidated and
integrated into the individual’s general approach to reasoning. Ex) Doing math problems.
Information-processing view of adolescent thinking- improvement of these areas: attention, working
memory, processing speed, organization, and metacognition. These skills don’t change past usually age 15.
*Intrinsic motivation- Motivation based on the pleasure one will experience from mastering a task. Ex) if you
learn how to get good grades, you probably will do that to get a good outcome.
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Extrinsic motivation- Motivation based on the rewards one will receive for successful performance. Ex) Your
parents tell you that if you get good grades, you get money, so, you earn good grades to get paid.
ADOLESCENCE – Socioemotional Development & Conflict Resolution
Erikson’s stage
*Identity versus identity diffusion- resolving their identity crisis. Ex) a Goth kid trying to find their place.
Identity status- Knowing who you are as a person at any given time.
James Marcias- The person that created and studied the idea of ethnic identity.
Ethnic identity- The aspect of somebody knowing and relating to their ancestry or race group.
Changes in self-evaluations- some studies say that for self esteem, some cases it decreases and other it
Family relationships (with parents, siblings)- some families adapt to change better than others
Peer relationships (cliques, peer pressure, popularity & rejections, sex differences)- Clique- tightly knit group
of 2-12 people, Average of 5-6 people. They come together because of people with similar interests. Crowd-
composed of several cliques. More of a general overview. Ex) Band Geeks (a crowd), where as the flute players
may be a clique. People who are overaggressive, withdrawn, or a combination of both creates rejection.
Psychological Moratorium- the fact that we have time to figure out who we are versus the people that don’t
have the time. EX) We have time to find ourselves since we are in college. Some people that have kids in their
younger times don’t have that time.
Dating & romantic relationships (impact on development)- By age 16, 90% of teens have had one date. Girls
tend to be involved with older guys, Guys are more involved with younger girls. Age is a huge thing, if you
become involved before 15, it can lead to delinquency, alcohol abuse, or sexual stuff. Girls who do this become
less social and have more problems. Breaking up is the first major thing to cause depression.
Externalizing problem- taking the problem out on the real world. Usually leads to life long externalization.
Category is male, poor, from a divorced home, or a neglectful family. History of anti-social behavior. Lower IQ
and test scores.
Internalizing problem- Keeping a problem in. Delinquency, depression, anxiety, suicide.
Delinquency- acting up, can lead to jail and legal problems.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)- A condition in which children have difficulty getting
organized, focusing on a task, or thinking before acting.
Depression (including sex differences, suicide, suicidal ideation)- internalizing problems. It is genetic, but is
only starts usually if/after an event occurs. Suicide- 10% of females tries to commit suicide in high school. Peak
age is 15.
Jean Phinley- 4 Stages w/ Ethnic Identity: Assimilation (taking in the culture your in), Marginality
(rejecting/rebelling the culture that you’re living in), Separation (when you associate only with your culture and
people in your culture), Bicultural Division (maintains ties between the majority culture and the minority
Communication- sending messages either verbally or through gestures.
Aggressive- hostile or violent behavior towards somebody/something.
Assertive- persistent
Attentive listening- being a good listener by maintaining eye contact, repeating variations of what was said,
and paying attention.
Avoidance- blatantly trying to stay away from something or something.
Blaming- putting the fault on somebody/something besides themselves (usually)
*Double bind- when your gestures and verbal messages align and usually mean doubt or concern over a
relationship. Ex) Domestic Abuse is an example of double bind if one spouse is physically and
verbally/emotionally abusive.
Feedback- Expressing how you feel or giving criticism as a reply.
Gender differences- Men tend to be more competitive, action-oriented and solution oriented when it comes to
communication. Females are more connection-oriented, relationship-oriented, and affiliative.
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