PHIL 230 Lecture 5: PHIL 230 Lecture 5

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1 Apr 2019
The complex Version will NOT be on the exam. Only the Simple Version
Example - Explanatory Factors
Argument about existence of God - Difficult evidence, influence of faith, religious belief
Arguments about the reality of the moon landing - Confusion/conspiracy theorizing, lack of trust in
sources of information
Arguments about cause of climate change - Difficult evidence, influence of political beliefs
Application to moral disagreement
Maybe some of these same factors explain why we continue to disagree about moral issues
o This raises doubts about the premise of CV
Review of Simple Version
Premise: People and cultures always disagree about morality
Conclusion: Therefore, relativism about morality is true
Strategies for criticism:
o Find cases of agreement/resolution
o Question the support provided by the premise
Final thoughts on Mackie
o Moral disagreements poses a challenge to objectivism
o But objectivism has reasonable responses
o Objectivism about basic moral facts is still a live option
Intro to Business ethics
1. Why business ethics?
a. Business like government, affects our lives in dramatic ways:
i. Providing great benefits but also sometimes great harms
1. This makes business an ethically significant institution for us to examine
2. Current climate of failure/distrust
a. Recent Examples: for profit colleges, Facebook, Wells Fargo
b. In 2010, only 46% of Americans expressed trust in business leaders
i. First time in a long time this number has dropped below 50%
c. An ethical renewal is in the interests of everyone
3. Introduction of key concepts
a. Definitions
i. Shareholder:
1. Any owner of the firm, entitled to share of gains/losses
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