AJ 4 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Improper Conduct, List Of Civilisations In The Culture Series, Peer Pressure
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Issues in Policing
Who Are The Police?
● Traditionally it was white males with a high school education that pass down the job.
Police and Education
● More agencies don’t require recruits to have a college education but encourage education
● Better communication with the public especially minority and ethnic groups is a benefit
of higher education. Preform more effectively, better writing, generate fewer citizen
complaints, and better decision makers.
Minorities in Policing
● African American experience: 1861, want to be respected by white colleagues, dislike
disrespect from own kind, and feel as protectors of their own.
Double Marginality: according to Nicholas Alex, the social burden that African American police
officers carry by being both minority group members and law enforcement officers. Had to prove
a lack of bias by being harsh to them.
● Minority police officers now seem more aggressive, more self assured, and less willing to
accept any discriminatory practices by the police department. White officers are more
likely to appreciate the contribution of minority officers.
Women in Policing
● 1910, increase in female representation among sworn officers may be leveling off. Report
more stress, harassment, and difficulty in promotion. Research indicates that female
officers are highly successful officers. Less likely to be charged with improper conduct
but more likely to be assaulted.
● If they are physically weak, males view them as a risk on the field; if they are more
powerful, they are regarded as an affront to a male officer’s manhood.
● White women receive more sexual discrimination than black women.
The Police Profession
Blue Curtain: the secretive, insulated police culture that isolates officers from the rest of society.
● Perceptions of danger have a unifying effect on officers and work to separate them from
the public and help create the boundaries of a police subculture.
● Officers are the only real crime fighters, no one else understand the real nature of police
work, loyalty to colleagues counts above everything else, the war against crime cannot be