AJ 4 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial, Excited Delirium, New York City Police Department
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Use Of Force
Race and Force
● Minority groups are more likely to experience police threat or use of force as a
consequence of police contact. Race may be a factor that determines the outcome of
police-citizen encounters, but it is certainly not the only one. But the suspects behavior is
much more powerful determinant of police response than age or race.
Deadly force: the intentional use of a firearm or other instrument, resulting in a high probability
● Factors related to police shootings: local and national violence levels, exposure to
violence, workload, firearm availability, social conflict (economic damage),
administrative policies, and race.
● Controlling deadly force: Tennessee v Garner = 4th amend. NYCPD conduct
Nondeadly force: force that is unlikely to cause death or significant bodily harm.
Excited delirium: an overdose of adrenaline that can occur in heated confrontations with the
● Controlling Nondeadly force: Graham v. Connor force is excessive when the force used
Impact munitions: less lethal weapons that are used to stun or otherwise incapacitate
uncooperative suspects so they can be subdued.
Police as victims
National law enforcement officer’s memorial: the nations monument to police officers who have
died in the line of duty.
Court Structure And Personnel
The Criminal Court Process
● Clerk, prosecutor, defense, judge, and probation department all play a role in the
Plea Negotiations/Plea Bargaining: discussions between defense counsel and prosecution in
which the accused agrees to plead guilty in exchange for certain considerations, such as reduced
charges or a lenient sentence.