AJ 4 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial, Excited Delirium, New York City Police Department

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Jeff Koo
AJ 4
Criminal Law
Fall 2018
4 Units
Use Of Force
Race and Force
Minority groups are more likely to experience police threat or use of force as a
consequence of police contact. Race may be a factor that determines the outcome of
police-citizen encounters, but it is certainly not the only one. But the suspects behavior is
much more powerful determinant of police response than age or race.
Deadly Force
Deadly force: the intentional use of a firearm or other instrument, resulting in a high probability
of death.
Factors related to police shootings: local and national violence levels, exposure to
violence, workload, firearm availability, social conflict (economic damage),
administrative policies, and race.
Controlling deadly force: Tennessee v Garner = 4th amend. NYCPD conduct
Nondeadly force
Nondeadly force: force that is unlikely to cause death or significant bodily harm.
Excited delirium: an overdose of adrenaline that can occur in heated confrontations with the
Controlling Nondeadly force: Graham v. Connor force is excessive when the force used
was unreasonable.
Impact munitions: less lethal weapons that are used to stun or otherwise incapacitate
uncooperative suspects so they can be subdued.
Police as victims
National law enforcement officer’s memorial: the nations monument to police officers who have
died in the line of duty.
Court Structure And Personnel
The Criminal Court Process
Clerk, prosecutor, defense, judge, and probation department all play a role in the
Plea Negotiations/Plea Bargaining: discussions between defense counsel and prosecution in
which the accused agrees to plead guilty in exchange for certain considerations, such as reduced
charges or a lenient sentence.
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