GEOL 1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Spheroidal Weathering, Volcano, Weathering

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19 Oct 2020
Jeff Koo
Geol 1
Physical Geology
Spring 2019
4 Units
Formed of pyroclastics only
Steep sides 30 degrees
Relatively small
Short duration of activity
Cerro negro, a cinder cone in Nicaragua
Composite volcano
Alternating pyroclastic layers and lava flows
Slopes intermediate in steepness
Intermittent eruptions over long time span
Mostly andesite
o Circum-pacific belt (“ring on fire”)
o Mediterranean belt
Volcanic Domes
Forms above a volcanic vent
Viscous lava
o Usually silica-rich (or cooler magma)
o Associated with violent eruptions
Lava floods
Mafic lava-solidifies to basalt
Fissure flows
o Plateau basalts
Columnar structure or jointing
Weathering, erosion, transportation
Weathering-rock breaks down- either chemical or physical
Erosion-physical removal -stream pushing sand along the stream
Transportation the actual movement of the eroded particles
Chemical vs. mechanical weathering
Effects of weathering
o Surface alteration of outcrops
o Spheroidal weathering
o Differential weathering
Mechanical weathering
Disintegration of rocks
Frost action
Frost wedging- rock pried apart along joints
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