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Lecture 1

BIOL-L 211 Lecture 1: Lecture 1

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Indiana University - Bloomington
BIOL-L 211

1/10/17% Lecture 1: Introduction and chemistry review BIOL-L 211 Gabe Zentner BiWhat is the epigenome?stry •  Chemical bonds hold biomolecules together – DNA, RNA, proteins •  Covalent bonds – Strongest; H-O bond of water is ~110 kcal/mol •  Noncovalent bonds – Weaker; hydrogen bonds of water are ~4.5 kcal/mol What is the epigenome? •  Strong and stable – C-C bond energy is ~85 kcal/mol – Used to build the backbones of DNA, RNA, and protein 1% 1/10/17% What is the epigenome? •  Form at precise angles •  Example: water,2H O Covalent bonds What is the epigenome? •  Double and triple covalent bonds prevent rotation of the connected atoms •  Example: peptide bonds in proteins What is the epigenome? •  Occurs when atoms have different affinities (electronegativities) for the electrons they share •  Results in unequal electron sharing: the dipole moment •  Common examples: C-O, H-O, N-H 2% 1/10/17% What is the epigenome? •  Charge separation within a molecule containing polar covalent bonds •  Affects a molecule’s ability to dissolve in different substances •  Expressed as the dielectric constant What is the epigenome? •  Example: water •  Dielectric constant ~80 •  Substances with high dielectric constants are hydrophilic (water-loving) and their separated charges allow them to easily dissolve in water Nonpolar covalent bonds What is the epigenome? •  Occurs when atoms have equal affinities for the electrons they share •  No charge separation (dipole moment) – Also affects ability to dissolve in different substances: said to be hydrophobic (water fearing) •  Common examples: C-H, C-C 3% 1/10/17% What is the epigenome? •  Weak – 10-100 times weaker than covalent bonds in water – Generally only effective in aggregate (this is important in DNA and proteins!) •  Act at short distances •  Form at many different angles Noncovalent bonds What is the epigenome? •  Very useful in biological situations – When atoms must be packed closely together (interiors of proteins) – When atomic interactions need to be transient or reversible (DNA structure) EWhat is the epigenome?ons •  Ionic interactions: form between two molecules with opposite charges – Example: NaCl (Na + Cl )
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