PSY-P 101 Lecture 20: P101 Lecture 20 Notes (Apr. 4)

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Indiana University - Bloomington
Psychological & Brain Sciences
PSY-P 101
Motz Benjamin

P101 Lecture 20 Notes- Memory (cont.) 4-4-17  Different Instructions o Serial recall- recalling information in order it was presented to you o Free recall- recalling information in any order you choose/can do o Cued recall- given a specific cue about one item among several to aid in recalling it  Ex. List will be read aloud  Jazz, concert, orchestra, prism, sing, piano, band, note, instrument, art, sound, symphony, radio, melody  Raise hand if you hear a word called out afterward that was on list  Many people agreed “robber” and “book” were not on list; list had a musical theme  “Music” itself was not on list, but around 1/3 of class raised their hands; when we remember information, we don’t necessarily remember exactly what happened, but we retrieve bits of information and reconstruct a memory based on what we assumed could have happened  Reconstructive Remembering o Schemas- organized structures of knowledge in long-term memory; clusters of related facts  Useful for establishing expectations; allow us to take “short cuts”- do not have to remember every detail, because we have a broad outline in memory  May backfire and lead to creation of false memories and stereotypes  Implicit, automatic; we learn them without trying o Exp. “The War of the Ghost,” Bartlett (1800s)  Native American story read to people in England, asked to recall details; never seen Native Americans before, much less heard their stories  Some asked several minutes later, some a few days, some a month or so  People lost access to details almost immediately  The longer he waited, the more the story became distorted to fit the people’s cultural experiences  Most common was changing “canoes” to “ships”; warriors became soldiers; ordering of story itself changed  Filled story with things from long-term memory o Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) False Memory Paradigm  Themed set of words, but word for main theme not in list  Good way to study false memory; controlled stimuli o Exp. Loftus and Palmer, 1974  All participants saw same video of car crash  Asked one version of “how fast were the cars going when they bumped into/hit/tapped/smashed into/crashed into each other?”  Speed estimates
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