REL-R 153 Lecture 1: Buddhism Notes

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Indiana University - Bloomington
Religious Studies
REL-R 153
Haberman David

Chapter 5: Buddhism The Buddha: 53-483 BCE Terms: Dharma- the “teachings” of buddhism Shramana- is one who renounces the world and leads an ascetic life for the purpose of spiritual development and liberation Jataka- birth stories; any of the various stories of the former lives of the Buddha found in Buddhist literature Siddartha- founder of Buddhism Shakyamuni- when Siddhartha Gautama/ Buddha was born Nirvana- a transcendent state in which there is neither suffering, desire, nor sense of self, and the subject is released from the effects of karma and the cycle of death and rebirth. It represents the final goal of Buddhism ordinary———>middle———>ascetic (palace) (forest in city)(forest) (monastery) problem: suffering cause: attachment goal: liberation nirvana-enlightenment, awakening path: renunciation-meditation-material wealth contemplation middle way = path of the Buddha 4 Sights 1. old man 2. ill man 3. corpse 4. ascetic/renounces / priest Persecutions -kingdom -family -svardharma -own duty -householder Defense -suffering affects everyone, the solution will help everyone -responsibility for others -nontheistic, gods are present but not ultimate -dharma- the buddhist technique -doctrine-hindu teaching Five “Aggregates” (Skandhas) 1. form/matter: material or physical nature of things 2. sensation: physiological process resulting from contact with matter 3. perceptions: mental discriminations born of sensations; the recognitions of objects 4. predispositions: impulses, mental formations, ideas, tendencies 5. consciousness: moments of awareness The Four Noble Truths 1. Dukkha: life is suffering (result of trying to possess things) 2. Tanha:the cause of suffering is grasping (selfish thirst) 3. Nirvana: the cessation of suffering 4. Marga: the path leading to the cessation of suffering Wheel of Life- Twelvefold Chain of Dependent Origination 3 Marks of existence: dukkha: suffering anitya: impermanence, things that are always changing anatman: no-self, absence of true self, no essence of a chariot Eightfold Path: Shila= “ethical conduct” (#1-3) Samadhi= “mental disciple” (#4-6) Prajna= “wisdom” (#7-8) 1. Right Speech 2. Right Action 3. Right Livelihood 4. Right Effort 5. Right Mindfulness 6. Right Concentration 7. Right Thought 8. Right Understanding Theravada- Branch of B
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