Sociology 9/3/2013 11:30:00 AM
Conflict theory- always gonna be groups competing for the same thing so
everything in society is going to be a conflict. Has to do with power. 3
different types – feminist theory, race theory, post modernism, post
karl Marx- the fight between the workers and the rich people. Owners of
capital and worker. Mode of production – the base, and the super structure,
the education, religion, everything created to reinforce the power difference
Marx saw social change through change of mode of production
Durkeim said about social change through technology and proximity of
Solidarity that durkeim talked about: organic-a rise of interdependence and
mechanical- cohesion and integrating come from homogenrity (everyone is
basically doing the same things.) main difference is that with mechanical,
people believe all the same things
Easiest way to get people – survey
Advantage : large scope
Disadvantage : maybe wont get all the same answers depending on how its
Primary agents of socialization: school and family
Breeching: disruption of norms ex- standing backwards in an elevator.
People try to turn back social order
Internet and Culture
o Arab spring
o Realignment of journalism
Snowed, what does facebook and google know about you?
Social psychology o The purpose of the section on social psychology is to foster
the development of this brance of sociology through
stimulating research and communicating knowledge. Social
psychology is interpreted according to its inclusive and
traditional use in sociology to encompass such broad fields as
socialization, interpersonal relations and social behavior.
Face to face
o Social interaction
The seemingly trivial
o Civil inattention
o goffmann stated that we look at all parts of human interaction
and develop the dramaturgical perspective
life is in essence as a theatre
o roles for audience
o inhabit stages and sets
o make use of props and scripts
power of ordinary routines
o provides structure and form
humans can act creatively
studying SI allows to better understand social institutions
facial expressions, gestures, body movement
active control of perception
heart of identity construction
as weve talked about, multiple roles and interactions
o toward other students, toward the instructor
o audience segregation – front stage, back stage
status, social positions o clothing
focused interaction- directly attending to what others say and do
unfocused- aware that someone is there but you don’t want to interact with
Study of how people make sense of what others do
Enthomethods- how people sustain meaningful information
Why does this matter?
Social glue- shared assumptions provide stability
Talk- conversation analyisis
How we talk is foundational to creating and maintaining a stable,
comprehensible social world
Personal space Theory and methods 9/3/2013 11:30:00 AM
What is a theoretical approach/theory?
Abstract interpretation that can be used to explain a wide variety of
An orientation toward examining social phenomena
Theories are more narrowly focused
What is a method?
The manner in which a researcher works to answer a sociological
question, can be theoretically informed.
Durkheim, Marx, Weber
Very interested in social change- why? Living through the two
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
o The aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals.
o The study of social facts, like any empirical fact, is what
makes sociology a science.
o We have observable facts and theories we can test, therefore
making it a science.
o It seems “as if” society makes us do things.
o There are moral forces that affect our behavior.
o There isn’t any “rational agent”
Structural functionalism- how societies stay together. Functionalists
look at the world as an organic being with an end-game, people
looking to fulfill role as assigned.
o Mechanical solidarity
Cohesion and integration come from homogeneity
Everyone knows their roles, things aren’t changing very
fast, small rural environment, people have same set of
o Organic solidarity
Rise of interdependence in modern society.
Different communities start interacting with other
communities and finding different ties.
o both types of solidarity contain the idea of collective
conscious. o Set of shared beliefs, moral attitudes, and ideas that bind a
o When social norms lose their hold over society
o Aimlessness or despair created by modern life
o Caused by a rapid change in standards or values
Mode or Production- materialist conception of history: material, or
economic, factors have a prime role in the determining historical
Industrial revolution: cottage -> capitalism
o Concerned with social change based on mode of production
o Hegelian Dialecti
Thesis (social order as it is now) antithesis
(alternate idea of a social order). They come together to
create a new synthesis.
History is about class conflict, conflict theory
o Proletariat- common worker
o Bourgeoisie- managers (more upper class) owners
Concerns with capitalism
o Thought it was unobtainable
o Alienation: the separation of things that belong together
Base(mode of production) and super structure (maintains and
legitimizes the base)
o There is no need to lead a revolution here because you will be
saved in heaven. Rich people stay rich and poor people stay
Max Weber (1864-1920)
Focus on ideas and values
o Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
It is the idea of the elect that drove capitalism. How is this different from marx? Marx would say that
capitalism creates and Max would say capitalism was
created by Calvinist Christianity
Bureaucracy/ Rationality- businesses are going to act in a
reasonable manner. How organizations work and how that affects
o Iron cage- you lose sense of where you are in the world
because you become so into your business
Kind of created organizational science
Class/power/status- hierarchical systems of power
o Class- similar to Marx, but not necessarily a political outcome
o Power- authority
Charismatic: person is role
Traditional domination: person is role
W.E.B DeBois (1868-1963)
The souls of black folk
o An american, a negro, two souls in one dark body, whose
dogged strength alone kee