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ANTH222 Lecture Notes - Macroevolution, Microevolution, Gradualism

1 pages28 viewsFall 2012

Course Code
Dr.Francis Allard

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Notes: 9/10 Phenotype/Behavior Evolution
Animal/Human Phenotype Animal Behavior Human Behavior
Evolution of Animal/Human Phenotype Traits
Gradualism (Darwin’s Theory) – slight changes/improvements from one generation to
The next
Contradiction: eyeball is perfect, could only be created, not evolved (98%
of an eye doesn’t work)
Contradiction to Contradiction: you can have a very simple eye that still
works (i.e. light sensitive cells), seen in
Rate at Which Evolution Occurs
- finch’s beaks – 4% change is an extremely high rate
-Human Heads
6 million years ago our brains were 350cc, now they are 1400cc. That’s a 300%
increase; still relatively fast rate
Macroevolution- change in a species over a long period in time
Microevolution- slight, short changes to a species
Evolution of Animal Behavior Traits
Soapberry Bugs of Oklahoma
- Males will change mating behavior based on sex ratio of M/F populations
- Males will stay attached to females through genital hooks to prevent other males
from mating with the female
- He’ll mate guard longer when there are fewer females, less when more females
- The trait of mate guarding flexibility is only present in OK bugs, not FL bugs
o Climate is less stable in OK affects sex ratio more often
- Mate guarding flexibility requires a more complex brain, uses more energy, it’s
o It won’t be developed unless it’s necessary
Test of Postulates:
1. Limited resource of females
2. Variation in behavioral flexibility in male bugs in OK
3. Flexibility is passed to offspring
Evolution of Human Behavior Traits
Examples: tee-shirt experiment- trait is female’s ability to detect immune system of
males by scent
- Brains of men and women are very different
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