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Lecture 3


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BIOL - Biology
Course Code
BIOL 104
Dr. Major

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Developmental Biology Chicken Egg Chick Step #1-Fertilization: Fusion of sperm and egg haploid nuclei The Mature Sperm Cell: Acrosomeenzymes that digest proteins and carbohydrates Midpiececontains lots of mitochondria Tailflagellum containing microtubules and dynein motor protein The Egg: Plasma Membrane Zona Pellucida Jelly Ovulation is the release of the egg from the ovary The Ampulla is the region of fertilization within the fallopian tube The Acrosomal Reaction: Enzymes spill out of the acrosome and breakdown the jelly surrounding the egg When sperm and egg fuse: The two egg membranes separate from each other This prevents polyspermy (fertilization by more than one sperm) Step #2Cleavage Zygote undergoes a series of rapid cell divisions Cell Cleavage Cleavage occurs as the embryo migrates along the fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation We now have a blastocyst Inner Cell Mass (ICM) This will become the embryo Step #3-Gastrulation Cells move around to form three cell layers The Node The Primitive Streak The cells in the top layer dive down into the primitive streak to form the inside layers This is a cross-section of these cell movement: The Node Primitive Streak Layer #1 Layer #2 Layer #3 Each layer will develop into different tissues/organs in the adult. We start out as a line! 1. Our central nervous systems run from brain to tailbone 2. Our vertebral bones and ribs run from neck to waist 3. Our back muscles run from neck to tailbone 4. Out digestive tracts run from mouth to anus The Node is the most critical part of the story (VERY POWERFUL) Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold They transplanted the nose to a different location in the embryo Node transplantation introduces a second axis Node is transplanted to another spot (From Donor to Host) Induced Embryo and Host Embryo The Node is called the organizer because it is capable of organiz
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