Chapter 1-3.docx

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Indiana University of Pennsylvania
EDSP - Educ & School Psychology
EDSP 102

Chapter 1 ~ Educational Psychology- the study of behavior as it relates to the classroom • * Teaching and learning ** What is good teaching? ~ Cognitive perspective- gaining knowledge/training (college) pedagogy ~ Affective perspective- ability to deal with students, parents and faculty; skills ~ Efficacy- belief you have in your abilities-> teacher efficacy- belief in teach where students learn 1. As a teacher, you should have high expectations • Expect hard work and doing their best 2. Do not label students • Gifted ,disabled, average, etc. taken too extreme Overachiever Underachiever GPA High Low Standardized Low High test 3. Take care of students’ self-esteem • Who you are has nothing to do with grades 4. Have the resources needed for student success 5. You have to motivate your students • Intrinsic-> own source of reward • Extrinsic 6. You have to expand your knowledge base • Masters; training; subscribe to periodicals 7. Teaching is a process • Theory/philosophy of teaching • Bloom’s Taxonomy-> Classification of learning -> How the teacher teaches and the student learn -> Six Levels/ Principles (in order) *must at least get to level 3 1. Knowledge- memorization of factual info ° Teachers: present Students: memorize 2. Understanding- comprehension; novelty ( new) -> demonstration (paraphrase/quizzes) ° Teachers : Explain Students: demonstrate 3. Application- Problem solving-> learning is generalized(learned in one setting applied to others) ° Teachers: Give Examples Students: Solve 4. Analysis- breaking down of factual info (how component parts make up whole) ; completion ° Teachers: show how to break Students: give back complete info 5. Synthesis- blend old and new info -> new info ° Teachers: give old and new info Students: take both come up with new 6. Evaluation- value judgment concerning factual info; supported ° Teachers: Give content info Students: Support 8. Several attempts may be required • Have different ways of explaining 9. Work with students confusion 10. Understand your students have a wide range of abilities *Expert Teacher ~ Recognized for doing your job well (not compared to others) Qualities for expert teachers 1. Elaborate knowledge of the problems in teaching ° Number one problem faced by teachers-> discipline 2. Works from integrated set of principles (Blooms Taxonomy) ° The 6 levels and how they go together 3. Understands what is typical in the classroom [Automaticity] 4. Can create examples on the spot ° Most script for difficult info 5. Be ready to deal with confusion ° Bring back into balance *Teaching as an Art vs Science Art-> teacher being reflective person ° Ask “what worked?” and “what didn’t work?” ° Know you need to change Science-> part of teaching that has a tendency to stay the same Definitions ~ Principle-> established relationship between factors where the same conclusions are reached consistently ~ Law-> principles that have stood the test of time ~ Theory-> integrated statement of principles that attempts to explain and make a prediction Chapter 2 Typical development -arrested development-> stopped/disrupted Cognitive-Piaget ~ Development-> changes that occur in human beings between conception and death [comprehensive theory] ~ Temporary changes are not development ~ Takes time, orderly, overtime ~ Nature and Nurture • Nature-> maturation- occurs by itself • Nurture-> assistance- speeds process ~ 3 principles • Students develop at different rates • Development is orderly • Development happens gradually ~ IST -> instructional support team ~ IEP-> individualized education plan ~ SES-> social economic status *Believes in: 1. Maturation -> (think nature) born with/ least modifiable • Hair or eye color, height, traits 2. Activity-> ability to act on the environment and adapt 3. Social Transmission-> learning we gain from other people • Teachers, parents, siblings, friends, etc. *Everyone has 2 basic tendencies: 1. Organization-> combining and ranging of behaviors of thoughts into coherent systems • Everyone looks to make sense 2. Adaptation-> ability to adjust to the environment • Combination of : a. Assimilation-> fitting new info into existing schemes (how to problem solve) [Associate with what they know] b. Accommodation-> altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new info • Accommodation to assimilation give examples Equilibrate-> act of searching for a balance - As a teacher we take students in and out of equilibrium **Piaget’s stages of cognitive development 4 stages/principles 1. Sensory-Motor Stage ~ Combination of senses and motor skills-> senses cause they can’t speak ~ Apgar test -> right after birth ~ Age: birth to 2 ~ Accomplishments: 1. Object Permanence-> understanding that objects have a separate existence 2. Logical goal directed action-> deliberate actions 2. Pre Operational Stage ~ Operates-> ability of the child to think something through before they do it *Cognitive mapping ~ Ages: 2-7 ~ Manual dexterity-> ability to use motor skills ~ Accomplishments: 1. Internalization of action 2. Language development* -> ages 2 to 4 200 goes to 200 words  Foreign-> very critical in overall development ~ Characteristic: 1. One directional logic-> unable to think in reverse  Tells you what they are not able to do: decentering-> ability to focus on or more aspect of a problem at a time 2. Collective monologue-> children in a group talking but not interacting (listening) 3. Egocentric-> believe everyone in the world has the same views as they do 3. Concrete Operational Stage ~ Age: 7-11 ~ Concrete vs Abstract -hands on thinking -opposite ~ Accomplishments: 1. Identity-> principle that a person or object stays the same 2. Compensation-> that changes in one dimension can be set in another 3. Reversibility-> mastery of reverse thinking ex. A + b = b + a = c 4. Classification-> ability to group objects into categories 4 Formal Operational Stage-> ~ Mental tasks involving abstract thinking and the coordination of multiple variables ~ Age: 11-15 ~ Most do not get here throughout schooling ~ Accomplishments: 1. Ability to think abstractly 2. Ability to deal with multiple factors 3. Ability to engage in hypothetical reasoning  Educated guess about relationship between two or more factors 4. Ability to engage in scientific reasoning ~ Characteristics: 1. Adolescent egocenterism-> strong belief and act upon it ~ Won’t get there without experience and interest *Vgotsky’s ~ Background: • Suggests that cognitive development depends much more on the people in children’s world • Childs knowledge, ideas, attitudes, and values develop as a result of those they interact with • Culture-> determines what and how children will learn about the world • Language development important (both Vgotsky and Piaget)  Interspeech-> ability to solve problems by thinking first (like cognitive mapping) • Occurs through interaction of child with more capable members of the culture (adults or peers)  Scaffolding-> capable helps incapable ~ Zone of Proximal Development • Area where the child can't solve a problem alone but can be successful under adult guidance or a collaboration with a more advanced peer • (child does on own vs. with help from someone else • Cooperative learning  High, moderate, low together. *Information Processing ~ The study of how students perceive, comprehend, and remember info ~ Attention-> ability to get students to focus 1. Controlling attention -> ability to focus on what’s important 2. Fitting Attention to the Task-> focus on dimensions of a problem that will lead to the solution 3. Planning-> ability to look for clues 4. Monitoring-> using strategy to get to the results you want *Metacognition ~ Knowledge about one’s own thinking process ~ Understand what works for them and what won’t ~ Ability to monitor and direct
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