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Lecture 2

PSYC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Phineas Gage, Muscle Tone, HindbrainPremium

5 pages60 viewsFall 2016

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 101
Professor
Mark Palumbo
Lecture
2

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Basic Concepts of Research
Basis of the “ietifi ethod
Making observations in systematic way
Follow strict rules of evidence
What is the evidence?
How good is the evidence?
Alternative explanations?
What should e lear et…?
Critical thinking about evidence
Empirical Evidence and Operational Definitions
Empirical Evidence:
Observations of publicly observably
Theories:
Tentative explanations of facts and relationships in science.
Hypothesis:
A prediction based on a theory
1. Tested to confirm or refute
2. Can be revised or abandoned
Representations of Samples
“aples: Q: What’s a saple….?
A small group of humans or animals that is representative of
larger group or population of interest.
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Unrepresentative sample misleading or biased test of
hypothesis.
Replication of research removes most doubt.
Research Methods: Types of Studies
i. Descriptive studies; simplest method of scientific inquiry.
Q: Wh are the alled desriptie studies????
-Describe behavior and mental processes.
Survey method; ask people’s opiios.
Naturalistic observation; watch, describe.
Clinical method; observe in clinical setting.
Whih oe is the est ethod…?
-All have advantages and disadvantages.
ii. Correlational Studies
Correlational method: measure two variables for statistical
relationship.
Variable: Q; what is a variable?
-Anything that can be assigned a numerical value.
Use quantitative measures.
Correlation coefficient ®
Measures each variable;
Indicates strength (0 to 1) AND direction (negative and positive) of
the relationship.
- Correlation does not mean causation!
- But we use correlations to PREDICT.
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