FN 30300 Lecture 4: Chapter 4

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Chapter 4
Carbohydrates
What Are Carbohydrates and Why Do You Need Them?
Found primarily in plant-based foods
Grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes
Dairy animal based foods
Carbohydrate-based foods are staples in numerous cultures around the world.
Photosynthesis is the process that transform light or energy from the sun into glucose.
Most desirable form of energy for the human body
glucose (-ose = carbohydrate)
The brain and red blood cells rely on glucose for fuel source.
What are Carbohydrates
Carbohydrate means hydrated carbon or molecule that can be split up to water and
carbon.
Essential nutrient and preferred source of energy by our body.
Glucose can cross the blood brain barrier.
Every culture has a primary carbohydrate.
Asia - rice, Europe potato, Mediterranean-wheat based, etc.
United States we have all available.
Where do Carbohydrates Come from?
Carbohydrate are from plant based foods.
Plants store energy from sun in process called photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll allows plants to absorb energy from sun.
There are no carbohydrate in meats and fats.
The word carbohydrate describes the chemical structure which contains three elements
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Carbohydrate is fancy word for sugar.
What are Simple and Complex Carbohydrates?
Simple CHO
Monosaccharides-
Glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides -
Sucrose or Table Sugar fructose and glucose
Maltose (grains) 2 glucose
Lactose or milk sugar glucose and galactose
Polysaccharides Complex carbohydrate
Starch is storage form of glucose in plants.
Starch is a chain of hundreds or thousands of glucose molecules.
Amylose straight chain of glucose
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