FN - Foods & Nutrition FN 30300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Short-Chain Fatty Acid, Trans Fat, Ramen

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Trans Fat
What are Trans Fat
The process of hydrogenation adds hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fats, eliminating a
double bond and making them saturated.
These hydrogeated saturated fats hae a higher eltig poit, hich akes the
attractive for baking and extends their shelf-life.
The consumption of trans fats increases one's risk of coronary heart disease by raising
levels of "bad" LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of "good" HDL cholesterol.
Trans fat
Trans fat occurs naturally in the milk and body fat of cattle and sheep.
Partially hydrogenated oils have been used in food for many reasons.
increases product shelf life
decreases refrigeration requirements.
replaces use of butter and lard used by bakers.
inexpensive alternative to semi-solid oils such as palm oil.
adheres to kosher, Arabic, and vegetarianism in Buddhist and Hindu culture.
Food Source of Trans fat
The Top Trans Fat Foods processed foods.
1. Spreads. Stick margarine, Tub margarine, Shortening
2. Packaged foods. Cake mixes, Bisquick, etc.
3. Soups. Ramen noodles and soup cups
4. Fast Food.
5. Frozen Food.
6. Baked Goods.
7. Chips and Crackers.
8. Breakfast food. Breakfast cereal and energy bars
9. Cookies and Candy.
10. Toppings and Dips. Nondairy creamers, flavored coffees, whipped
toppings, bean dips, gravy mixes, and salad dressings
Fat Substitutes
Replaces added fat in foods provides fewer calories and provides creamy texture.
Fat Contains 9 calories per gram vs. 4 for carbs and protein primary method to reduce
calorie in foods.
Three categories of fat substitutes
Carbohydrate based gels, fibers, gums, starches
Protein based
Fat Based short chain fatty acids, mono and diglycerides, olestra
Reduced fat products are not calorie free many are equal or contain more calories
Changes
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Document Summary

Trans fat: trans fat occurs naturally in the milk and body fat of cattle and sheep, partially hydrogenated oils have been used in food for many reasons. increases product shelf life. Adheres to kosher, arabic, and vegetarianism in buddhist and hindu culture. replaces use of butter and lard used by bakers. inexpensive alternative to semi-solid oils such as palm oil. The top trans fat foods processed foods: spreads. Stick margarine, tub margarine, shortening: packaged foods. Ramen noodles and soup cups: fast food, frozen food, baked goods, chips and crackers, breakfast food. Breakfast cereal and energy bars: cookies and candy, toppings and dips. Nondairy creamers, flavored coffees, whipped toppings, bean dips, gravy mixes, and salad dressings. Carbohydrate based gels, fibers, gums, starches. Fat based short chain fatty acids, mono and diglycerides, olestra. Reduced fat products are not calorie free many are equal or contain more calories. Late 2013 fda extended comment period to remove trans fat from gras designation. http://www. fda. gov/food/ucm292278. htm.

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