Geology GEOL-G 107 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Argentite, Azurite, Kimberlite

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8 Feb 2017
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Rocks & Minerals
Minerals:
-Minerals make up everything from the oceanic and continental plates
What is a mineral?
-It must be naturally formed- has to be formed for physical and chemical earth processes, not
made by people, animals, or plants.
-It must be found on earths crust as a solid- a’t e liuid o gas,
-It must have a characteristic chemical formula- the chemical make-up of the mineral must be
the same whenever it is found
-It must have a characteristic crystalline structure- must form into the shape of a crystal which
is determined by the shape of the chemical bonds holding together the atoms of the mineral.
1. Igneous Processes Kimberlite (diamonds), Magnetite (iron ore)
2. Metamorphic Processes Galena (lead ore), Argentite (silver ore)
3. Sedimentary Processes Gold (native element), quartz (sand and gravel)
4. Biological Processes Phosphate (phosphorus mineral)
5. Weathering Processes Bauxite (aluminum ore), Azurite (copper ore)
What is a Rock?
-Only need one quality
-Is an aggregate or compilation of one or more minerals
-Since rocks can be only one mineral it is geologically correct to call a diamond or kimerlite a
rock.
-Native Mineral: when a mineral is made only of a single element
Basic Chemistry Elements :
1.Atoms: Elements (of the periodic table) are made out of atoms. Atoms are made up of
protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electrons are negatively charged and protons are positively
charged. Neutrons have no charge.
2.Bonds: Atoms often interact with other atoms to form bonds: covalent, ionic, and metallic
bonds for example. Atoms that are bonded together form molecules. Bonds are generally based
on attractions between positively and negatively charged atoms. If an atom has too many
electrons, then it is negatively charged. If an atom has too few electrons, then it is positively
charged.
3.Bond Shape: Bond type and shape is dependent upon factors like the electronegativity how
much an atom wants electrons , polarity, and size of the atoms bonding together. Generally,
atoms of opposite charges are attracted to each other and try to share electrons to become
neutrally charged. But eause atos ae of diffeet sizes, they a’t get too lose to eah
other, forcing them to conform to unique arrangement of shapes. Think about magnets, the
positie ed does’t at to e ea othe positie eds; the positie eds alays push
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