Geology GEOL-G 107 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Diagenesis, Extrusive Rock, Silt

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9 Feb 2017
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Rock Types
Igneous Rock:
- Ne roks ade fro ooled aga
- They form from completely melted rock, called magma
- They often rise up into other rock layers because the hot magma rises as it is less dense than
the surround rock
-Intrusive Igneous Rock:
-formed from the slow cooling of magma
-well-formed, large grained mineral crystals
-crystals are made from strong, stable covalently bonded silicate minerals,
resulting in very strong rocks.
-can range from high silicate content to low silicate content
-Can be found in plutons and batholiths under the earths surface, but because of
weathering some are seen at the surface
-Extrusive Igneous Rock:
-formed from quickly cooling magma
-small, unstable crystals
-can be very weak or strong, depending on the ratio of silicates to other minerals
-can be found near volcanoes or volcanic activity
Sediments:
-little bits of rock, created by the weathering of rocks
-weathering is the breakdown of rocks into smaller bits through the processes of
physical, chemical, and biological weathering.
-can then undergo erosion and transportation
-erosion: proess of reoig a sediet fro it’s origial positio
-transportation: caused by ice, water, or wind
-when the transportation stops and the sediments are deposited into areas where they
collect layers of sediments, overtime they form sedimentary rocks
-ingenious rocks can form either in the earth or on the earth, metamorphic rocks only form
within the earth.
-“edietary are fored oly at the Earth’s surfae
-Diagenesis: the collective physical and chemical processes by which sediments are transported
to a basin, then sorted by size with larger sediments being deposited closer to shore and finer
sediments floating off and settling into the basin further from the shore, then finally the
sediments gets stuck together to form rock.
-remember sedimentary rocks are formed from other rocks and minerals
Compaction You can force sediments to stick together through compaction with heat and
pressure. There is’t eough heat ad pressure to elt the roks, ut eough to get the to
line up against each other to form weak attractions. Imagine stacking pieces of paper
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