PSY-B 320 Lecture 11: Lecture 11.Chapter 5

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Lecture 8
Chapter 5
How Do Neurons Communicate and Adapt?
How do signals cross the synapse??
Scientists were divided into two camps:
On one side were the 'sparkers' who thought it was electrical, like the nerve impulse
itself.
On the other side were the 'soupers' who thought the synaptic signal was chemical.
Sparkers just couldn't see how chemicals could move fast enough; soupers couldn't see how
electricity would work.
A Chemical Message
Discoveries about how neurons communicate stem from experiments designed to study
hat otols a aial’s heart rate
Heartbeat quickens if you are excited or exercising; if you are resting, it slows
Cheials ela eitato essages to sa speed up ad ihiito essages to sa
slo do
Otto Loewi (1921)
Frog heart experiment
Role of the vagus nerve [and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh)] in
slowing heart rate
Otto Loewi (1921)
Frog heart experiment
Role of the vagus nerve [and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh)] in
slowing heart rate
Acetylcholine
The first neurotransmitter discovered in the PNS and CNS; activates skeletal
muscles in the somatic nervous system and may excite or inhibit internal organs
in the autonomic nervous system
Otto Loei fist alled it agusstoff (liteall taslated from German as
"Vagus Substance") won the Nobel Prize for his work
Otto Loei’s “useuet Reseah
Norepinephrine (NE, or noradrenaline)
Neurotransmitter found in the brain and in the sympathetic division of the
autonomic nervous system (PNS); accelerates heart rate in mammals
Epinephrine (EP, or adrenaline)
Chemical messenger that acts as a hormone to mobilize the body for fight or
flight during times of stress and as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous
system (CNS)
Neurotransmitter
Chemical released by a neuron onto a target with an excitatory or inhibitory
effect
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