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Lecture 19

Sociology SOC-R 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Status Attainment, Meritocracy, BourgeoisiePremium

2 pages31 viewsFall 2016

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Sociology SOC-R 100
Glenna Simons

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Chapter 7 Stratification
Stratification = structured social inequality or systematic inequalities
between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences
of social processes and relationships
o Ex. When sociologists ask how race and ethnicity affect incomes or
how gender affects occupational prestige
Social Equality= a condition whereby no differences in wealth, power,
prestige or status based on non-natural conventions exist
o Jean-Jacques Rousseau
o Social Inequality= result of privileges and uneven access to
o Two types of social inequality
Physical=consists of age, health, bodily strength and qualities
of mind/soul
Scottish Enlightenment and Thomas Malthus
Dialectic= a two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways
o German philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Standards of Equality
Ontological Equality= the notion that everyone is created equal at birth
o Thomas Jefferson
Equality of Opportunity = the idea that everyone has an equal chance to
achieve wealth, social prestige and power because the rules of the game are
the same for everyone
Bourgeois Society= a society of commerce in which the maximization of
profit is the primary business incentive
Equality of Condition= the idea that everyone should have an equal starting
Equality of Outcome= a position that argues each player must end up with
the same amount regardless od the fairness of the game
o Everyone contributes to society and to the economy according to
what they do best
Free Rider Problem= the notion that when more than one person is
responsible getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to
shirk responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight
Forms of Stratification
Stratified societies are those where human groups within them are ranked
hierarchically into strata.
Sociologists and philosophers believe there are four types of stratification
1. Estate System= politically based system of stratification characterized by
limited social mobility
a. Laws are written in a language in which rights and duties separate
individuals and distribute power unequally
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