CS 3501 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Wilhelm Schickard, Herman Hollerith, Blaise Pascal

45 views6 pages
Published on 26 Aug 2016
of 6
Blue = important
Green = from Textbooks
Computer Org and Arch PPT Chapter 1 (2 of 2)
Historical Developments
Computer evolution is classified into 4 generations according to the salient technology of the era
Generation Zero of Modern Computing (1642-1945)
Pre-computer Era
oAn Abacus (ab-ah-cus) was used
Also known as counting frame
Made with a bamboo frames and beads
Can find them in daycare centers today
After the decimal numbering system replaced the Roman numbering system, a number of
people invented devices to make decimal calculations faster and more accurate
oCalculating Clock - Wilhelm Schickard (1592 - 1635).
oMechanical calculator - Blaise Pascal (1623 - 1662).
oMore advanced calculator - Charles Babbage (1791 - 1871)
oPunched card tabulating machines - Herman Hollerith (1860 - 1929).
1st Generation of Modern Computing (1940s-1950s)
oDuring mid-1940s
oThe 2nd World War needed strategic type calculations performed and this lead to the 1st
generation of computers
oVacuum tubes
The First Generation: Vacuum Tube Computers (1945 - 1953)
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)
John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
University of Pennsylvania, 1946
oMagnetic storage
oFilled entire room
2nd Generation of Modern Computing (1950s-1960s)
oAT&T Bell Labs’ invention of the transistor occurred
oMade the computer smaller, faster and more reliable
oSoftware industry was born during this era (Fortran, Cobol)
oCompiler invented
oPunch cards
3rd Generation of Modern Computing (1960s-1980s)
oTransistors were made smaller to fit on a chip – semiconductor chips (integrated circuit
oMouse and keyboard introduced
oOperating Systems were developed – could run multiple programs at the same time
oMicroprogramming, parallelism, pipelining
oCache and virtual memory
4th Generation of Modern Computing (1980s to ???)
oChips continued to get smaller and smaller (and faster and faster)
oFor 3rd-Gen-Era, many transistors on a single chip to form an IC – for 4th-Gen-Era, many
ICs on a single chip – Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)
oFor what filled an entire room during the 1st Era – now fills a palm of a hand
oMicroprocessor was introduced
oAll major components of a computer fit on a single chip
oHome Computer was introduced during this era – IBM developed the PC in 1981 and
Apple developed the Mac in 1984
oComputer manufacturers brought computing to the general consumer market
(Embedded Systems)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
5th Generation of Modern Computing (Future)
oMake use of AI and voice recognition - devices that respond to natural languages input
and are capable of learning and self-organization.
oQuantum computers (based on quantum mechanics and physics versus
oNanotechnology – processing done at an atomic and molecular level
oWireless networking and mobile apps (not only LAN level, but MAN level)
oEmbedded systems will continue to grow and find its way into smaller and smaller
Moore’s Law (1965)
oGordon Moore, Intel founder
o“The density of transistors in an integrated circuit will double every year.”
Contemporary version:
o“The density of silicon chips doubles every 18 months.”
Rock’s Law
oArthur Rock, Intel financier
o“The cost of capital equipment to build semiconductors will double every four years.”
oIn 1968, a new chip plant cost about $12,000. (about the price of a nice house)
oIn 2010, a chip plants under construction cost well over $4 billion
NOTE: For Moore’s Law to hold, Rock’s Law must fall, or vice versa. But no one can say which
will give out first.
Computer Level Hierarchy
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com