CS 3501 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Instruction Set, High-Level Programming Language, Computer Architecture

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26 Aug 2016
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Computer Org and Arch PPT Chapter 1 (1 of 2)
Computationally infeasible
oAlgorithms that are too complicated to run on today’s systems
What is Computer Organization?
oEncompasses all physical aspects of computer systems.
oE.g., circuit design, control signals (how the computer is controlled), signaling methods,
memory types.
oComputer Organization helps us answer the question: “How does a computer operate?”
What is Computer Architecture?
oFocuses on the structure and behavior of the computer system
oRefers to the logical aspects of system implementation as seen by the programmer.
oE.g., instruction sets, instruction formats, data types, number and types of registers,
memory access methods, addressing modes, and I/O mechanisms.
oThe instruction set architecture (ISA) is the interface between the machine(hardware)
and all the software that runs on the machine
oThe “architecture” directly effects the logical execution of the programs
oComputer Architecture helps us answer the question: “How do I design a computer?”
Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software:
oAny task done by software can also be done using hardware, and any operation
performed directly by hardware can be done using software.*
High level language algorithms are implemented by lower level languages which are
implemented by machine-level algorithms implemented electronically
Computer Components
oComputer consists of:
A process (to interpret and execute programs)
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Memory (to store data and programs)
Mechanism for transferring data to and from the outside world
Measurements
oBase 10: Power, Electrical voltage, frequency..
oBase 2: Memory, Disk Space, Digital Base, Data Packet Switch type measures..
oMeasures of capacity and speed:
Kilo- (K) = 1 thousand = 103 and 210 (Actually 1024)
Mega- (M) = 1 million = 106 and 220 (Actually 1,485,576)
Giga- (G) = 1 billion = 109 and 230 (Actually 1,073,741,824)
Tera- (T) = 1 trillion = 1012 and 240
Peta- (P) = 1 quadrillion = 1015 and 250
Exa- (E) = 1 quintillion = 1018 and 260
Zetta- (Z) = 1 sextillion = 1021 and 270
Yotta- (Y) = 1 septillion = 1024 and 280
oHertz = clock cycles per second (frequency)
1 MHz = 1,000,000 Hz
Processor speeds are measured in MHz or GHZ
oByte = a unit of storage
1KB = 210 = 1024 Bytes
1MB = 220 = 1,048,576 Bytes
1GB = 230 = 1,073,741,824 Bytes
Main memory (RAM) is measured in GB
Disk storage is measured in GB for small systems, TB (240) for large systems.
Lower case k and b, kilo bits = 103 = 1000 bits, Uppercase K and B, Kilobyte = 210
(ie. 3 KB = 3 x 1024 bytes = 3072 bytes)
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Don’t think of “Kilobyte” in terms of a “byte” – two different units – byte is 8
bits and Kilobyte is 1024 bytes
Kilo vs Milli, Mega vs Micro, Giga vs Nano, Tera vs Pico, etc…
oMeasures of time and space:
Milli- (m) = 1 thousandth = 10 -3
Micro- () = 1 millionth = 10 -6
Nano- (n) = 1 billionth = 10 -9
Pico- (p) = 1 trillionth = 10 -12
Femto- (f) = 1 quadrillionth = 10 -15
Atto- (a) = 1 quintillionth = 10 -18
Zepto- (z) = 1 sextillionth = 10 -21
Yocto- (y) = 1 septillionth = 10 -24
oMillisecond = 1 thousandth of a second
Hard disk drive access times are often 10 to 20 milliseconds.
oNanosecond = 1 billionth of a second
Main memory access times are often 50 to 70 nanoseconds.
oMicron (micrometer) = 1 millionth of a meter
Circuits on computer chips are measured in microns.
Computer Ad’s Terminology
oIntel Pentium Dual Core, 3.06 GHz
The microprocessor = brain of the system
o1333MHz 4GB DDR SDRAM
Computer has 4GB of (fast) synchronous dynamic RAM)
o128KB L1 cache, 2MB L2 Cache
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