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HIST 3340 (3)
Lecture 3

HIST 3340 Lecture 3: World History Test #3 Notes (HIST 1112)

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Kennesaw State University
HIST 3340
Kent Bailey

Nation Building in the Americas Latin America Revolution • Struggles between Creoles & Peninsulares (saw themselves as different) • Influenced by Enlightenment ideals (freedom and liberty) • Inspired by American and French revolutions (high taxes and no political power) • Napoleon’s conquest of Spain and Portugal catalyst to fall of overseas empires that lasted 300 years Simon Bolivar • Goal to create republics in South America • Battle of Boyaca • Leads independence of Columbia (1810), Venezuela (1811), Ecuador (1822) • Drafts constitutions and laws in new nations Jose de San Martin • Led revolt creating independent Argentina • Crosses Andes and liberates Chile • Overthrows Viceroy of Peru with help of Thomas Cochrane • Bolivar finishes liberation Mexico • Father Miguel Hidalgo • Led peasant and Indian revolt (80k) • Not well organized and Creoles do not support • Captured and executed • Shows desires of the oppressed • Spain grants some freedom and creates more liberal Parliament • Agustin de Iturbide • Gains support of Creoles • Assures Catholicism and end of discrimination • Creates independent Mexico • Makes himself emperor • War destroys economy and most remain poor • Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana • Gains control after Agustin I resigns (1823) • “Napoleon of the West” every authoritarian • Mexican- American War loses ½ country (Texas, California, Southwest) Brazil • Joao the Portuguese heir escapes invading France • Falls in love with country • Forced back to Portugal after defeat of Napoleon or family would have lost the crown • Dom Pedro: Joao’s son is left as regent • Declares country independent of Portugal (1822) • Goal to keep two countries controlled by same family United States • Articles of confederation • 13 independent states loosely held together (no central government) • Problems with this system?? We didn’t have a federal government; we didn’t have a president or commander in chief. This made it seem as a weak government. • Push for new constitution • Constitutional convention (1789) • Creates strong federal government • 3 branches of government • Bill of Rights: 1 ten amendments to restrain power of strong government • Expansion west reignites slavery debate • Missouri compromise • Compromise of 1850 • Civil war: one of the 1 modern wars • Industrial north vs. agrarian south • Federal government vs. states rights • Slavery key arguments WORLD WAR I Road to war • Franco-Prussian War: 1870-1871 • Louis Napoleon attempts to stop Germany unification (he’s captured) • France loses Alsace-Lorraine region (rich in coal & iron) • Otto von Bismarck unifies Germany (becomes dominant power) • Ethnic tensions in Austria- Hungary (nationalism) • Crimean war: France, Britain & Ottoman Empire vs. Russia • Treaty of Paris 1856: It ends war but Russia keeps Crimea but no navy or military presence. • Slavic nationalism • Austria and Russian rivalry in the Balkan peninsula • Treaty of San Stefano • Dual Alliance: Germany and Austria vs. Russia • France fearful of Germany signs defense pact with Russia • Triple Entente: France, Britain, Russia • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • Problems here?? They were graphically located in the middle of both of their enemies; therefore they had to protect both coasts of their territory rather than just one. • Austria annexes Bosnia Straining Relations with Russia • Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austrian heir) assassinated in Sarajevo • Garvrilo Princip • Black Hand: Serbian terrorist group • Western front stalemate (France & Germany) • Trench Warfare • All Quiet of the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque • Horrors?? • Battle of Verdun • 700k causalities, 300k dead • Battle of Somme • Single deadliest battle in British history (20k killed) • 1.2 million causalities • Eastern front • Ottoman Empire joins with Germany And Austria • Battle of Gallipoli (500k causalities) • Ottoman victory led by Mustafa Kemal New Technologies • Makes killing easier • Machine guns • Tanks • Airplanes • Submarines • Poisonous gases USA Enters War • Sinking of the Lusitania • 124 Americans die • Americans begins preparing for war • Did Germany have right to sink this ship?? • Zimmerman Note • Germany proposes Mexico to align with them against United States • Get back lands lost in Mexican-American war Russian Revolution • Humiliating defeat to Japan and bad economy • Bloody Sunday (1905) • 300 protesters outside Winter Palace • Army opens fire killing 1000 • Tsar blamed for action makes concession • Nicholas II • Incompetent ruler • Peasant unrest (inflation and lack of bread) • War had cost millions of lives • Tsar leaves to command army himself • Rasputin • Mystic who helped cure heir Alexie • Becomes influential on royal family • Dominates Empress Alexandra • White Revolution: Alexander Tsar abdicates the throne • Provisional government set up led by Alexander Kerensky • Democratic freedoms for all • No land reform • Keeps Russia in war • Red revolution (communism) • Overthrows the provisional government • Vladimir Lenin • Leon Trotsky Communist Russia • Nationalizes all land and banks • Takes Russia out of war • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany • Germany gains Poland, Finland, Ukraine, Baltic Sates • Germany no long has to fight two front war World War I • Germany’s last push: Ludendorff Offensive • Take out western Europe before Americans arrived • Furthest German western advance • Allied counter offensive pushes them out • American turn tide of war • Lead by John Pershing • Germany forms a new government • Asked for peace based on Woodrow Wilson’s 14 point • Germany surrenders 11/11/18 • Treaty of Versailles • No delegates from Germany or Russia • Germany severely punished • Los Alsace-Lorraine And demilitarized zone on French border • Army limited to 100k • Lose all occupied land and colonies • War guilt clause • War reparations • Problems?? Germany having to take all responsibility and having to pay for all the war. Yes, it was humiliating to them and they were mad. • Seeds of problems in Middle East planted • Red Line Agreement • Balfour Declaration World War I Summary • 10 million soldiers dead and 20 million wounded • 7 million civilians killed • Can this war be justified?? 4 years of battle in the front line to kill this many people didn’t change any of the problems that existed. • Believe that peace treaty will directly lead to WWI?? WORLD WAR II Post WWI Economic Problems • Europe’s cities and infrastructure destroyed • Most countries had war debts and no way to pay them • Losers also had to pay reparations • Most of the world financially dependent on USA USA Stock Market Crash • Black T
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