PSYC 2300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Twin Study, Nuremberg, Hypothermia

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8 Feb 2018
Ethics in Research
1. Background
a. Until the end of WWII, ethics were in the hands of the researchers
i. Was assumed they would protect human subjects
2. Defining research ethics
a. Ensuring the welfare and dignity of individuals and the public
b. 2 basic categories of ethical responsibility
i. Ensure welfare and dignity of participants
ii. Ensure welfare and dignity of public
3. History
a. Nazi Germany (1930-1940s)
i. Nazi Euthanasia Project
1. Exposed individuals to gas or chemicals to kill them
ii. Twin studies at Auschwitz
1. Invasive procedures to identical twins
iii. Sterilization experiments
iv. Hypothermia and high altitude studies
b. Nuremburg Code
i. In 1947, physicians tried in Nuremberg, Germany for research atrocities
during WWII
ii. Results
1. 12 death sentences, 2 life sentences, 2 got 20 years, 1 given 15
years, 3 acquitted
iii. Code includes 10 principles for ethical treatment of research subjects
iv. Voluntary consent of subjects is fundamental
c. Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1970s)
i. In 1932, treatments for syphilis were very grave and had severe side
ii. Series of research abuses start in Tuskegee, Alabama by US Public Health
iii. Began as a short-term investigation to monitor untreated syphilis
iv. Mostly poor, rural, Black Americans
v. Belieed they ere reeiig treatet for ad lood, ut ot atual
vi. No informed consent
vii. Nearly 400 men left with syphilis long after treatment was found
1. Lasted for 40 years because researchers wanted to examine final
stages of the disease
2. 28 deaths from syphilis, 100 deaths from complications
3. 40+ wives infected
4. 19 children contracted the disease
d. Milgram obedience studies (1960s)
i. Study concerning obedience to authority
ii. Studied how much pain a normal person could inflict on another
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