PSYC 2300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Inter-Rater Reliability, Naturalistic Observation, Participant Observation

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30 Aug 2018
Descriptive Research
1. Observational method
a. Increasing objectivity
i. Behavioral categories
1. Clear operational definitions
ii. Well-trained and multiple observers
iii. Establish reliability
iv. Interrater reliabilityβ€”agreement between observers
b. Evaluating interrater reliability
i. Percent agreement π‘‘π‘œπ‘‘π‘Žπ‘™ # π‘Žπ‘”π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘’π‘šπ‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘ 
π‘‘π‘œπ‘‘π‘Žπ‘™ # π‘œπ‘π‘ π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘£π‘Žπ‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘›π‘  βˆ—100
c. Quantifying observations
i. Frequency: behavior count during fixed time
1. Yelling in a 30 minute period
ii. Duration: time engaged in behavior during fixed time
1. Time spent interacting with others in a 30 minute period
iii. Interval: divide observation into intervals, record whether or not
behavior occurs during each interval
1. Divide 30 minutes in 1 minute intervals, record frequency of
d. Sampling observations
i. 3 procedures (use interval method)
1. Time sampling: observe, pause, observe again
2. Event sampling: observe one event, then observe another event
3. Individual sampling: observe one individual, then observe
different individual
e. Types of observation
i. Naturalistic (nonparticipant) observation
1. Natural
2. Acknowledged observer
3. Unacknowledged observer
ii. Participant observation
1. Natural
2. Acknowledged participant
3. Unacknowledged observer
4. Ethnographies: observing he process while subjects are in the
middle of it
iii. Contrived observations
1. Unnatural
2. Setting arranged to facilitate certain behavior
f. Advantages and disadvantages of observational research
i. Advantages
1. Typically high external validity
2. Examine behaviors that cannot be manipulated
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