PSYC 2300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Statistical Inference, Statistic, Statistical Parameter

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30 Aug 2018
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Introduction to Statistics
1. Statistics, science, and observations
a. Uses of statistics
i. Organize and summarize information
ii. Justify conclusions
b. Goals of statistical procedures
i. Accurate and meaningful interpretation
ii. Provide standardized procedures
2. Populations and samples
a. Population: set of all individuals of interest in a particular study
b. Sample: set of individuals selected from a population for use in study
i. Usually intended to represent the population
3. Variables and data
a. Variable: characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for
individuals
b. Data (plural): measurements or observations of a variable
c. Datum (singular): commonly called a score or raw score
d. Data set: collection of measurements or observations
4. Parameters and statistics
a. Parameter: a value that describes a population
i. Derived from measurements or individuals in a population
b. Statistic: a value that describes a sample
i. Derived from measurements of individuals in a sample
5. Descriptive and inferential statistics
a. Descriptive statistics
i. Summarize data
ii. Organize data
iii. Simplify data
iv. Examples of presentation
1. Tables
2. Graphs
3. Averages
b. Inferential statistics
i. Study samples to make generalizations about population
ii. Interpret research data
iii. Common terminology
1. Margin of error
2. Statistically significant
3. ß (beta)=slope
6. Sampling error
a. Sample is never identical to population
b. Sampling error: natural discrepancy between a sample statistic and
corresponding population parameter
i. Example: margin of error in polls
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