PSYC 4430 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Impulse Control Disorder, Binge Drinking, Substance Abuse

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10 Jun 2018
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Chapter 10: Substance-Related, Addictive, and Impulse-Control Disorders
1. Important terms and distinctions
a. Substance use—takig a sustae i a a that does’t iterfere ith
functioning
b. Substance intoxicationphysical reaction to a substance
c. Substance abuse—use i a a that’s dagerous or auses sustatial
impairment
d. Substance dependencecan be defined by tolerance and withdrawal and drug-
seeking behaviors
e. Toleranceneeding more of a substance to get the same effect
f. Withdrawalphysical symptom or reaction when substance is discontinued after
regular use
2. Five main categories of substances
a. Depressantsbehavioral sedation (e.g. alcohol, sedative, anxiolytic drugs)
i. Alcohol
1. Effects of chronic alcohol use
a. Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal
b. Associated brain conditions—deetia ad Werike’s
disease
c. Fetal alcohol syndromedevelopmental problems due to
other’s osuptio of alohol he hild is i the
womb
2. Facts and statistics
a. In the US
i. Most adults consider themselves light drinkers
ii. Alcohol use is highest among white Americans
(56.8%)
iii. Males use and abuse alcohol more than females
iv. 23% of Americans report binge drinking
v. Violence is associated with alcohol
1. Alcohol abuse does not cause aggression
b. Abuse and dependence
i. 3 million Americans are alcohol dependent
ii. 20% of individuals with alcohol problems
experience spontaneous recovery
c. Diversity and alcohol use
i. Large variety in alcohol use statistics throughout
the world
1. Peru: 1 in 3 adults are dependent on alcohol
2. Shanghai: <1% rate of alcohol dependence
ii. Sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic-related disorders
1. Nature or drugs in this class
a. Sedativescalming (e.g. barbiturates)
b. Hypnoticssleep inducing
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c. Anxiolyticanxiety reducing (e.g. benzodiazepines)
b. Stimulantsincrease alertness and elevate mood (e.g. cocaine, nicotine)
i. Cocaine-use disorders
1. Effects of cocaine
a. Short-lived sensations of elation, vigor, reduced fatigue
b. Effects result from locking the reuptake of dopamine
c. Highly addictive, but addiction develops slowly
d. 1.9 million report use in US each year
2. Most cycle through patterns of tolerance and withdrawal
a. Characterized by apathy and boredomleads to use again
ii. Nicotine-related disorders
1. Effects of nicotine
a. Stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in CNS
b. Results in sensations of relaxation, wellness, pleasure
c. Highly addictive
d. Relapse rates equal to those seen with alcohol and heroin
2. Nicotine users dose themselves to maintain a steady state of
nicotine
3. Smoking has complex relationship to negative affect
a. Helping improve mood short-term
b. Depression occurs more in those with nicotine
dependence
4. DSM-5 criteria for tobacco withdrawal
a. After several weeks of daily use, unpleasant symptoms
upon stopping or reducing use:
i. Insomnia, increased appetite, restlessness, trouble
concentrating, anxiety, depression, irritability
b. Symptoms lead to clinically significant distress or
impairment
iii. Caffeine-related disorders
1. Effects of caffeine—the getle stiulat
a. Used by over 90% of Americans
b. Found in teas, coffee, cola drinks, and chocolate
c. Small doses elevate mood and reduce fatigue
d. Regular use can result in tolerance and dependence
e. Caffeine blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter
adenosine
c. Opioidsproduce analgesia and euphoria (e.g. heroin, morphine, codeine)
i. Overview
1. Nature of opiates and opioids
a. Opiatenatural chemical in the opium poppy with
narcotic effects
b. Opioidsnatural and synthetic substances with narcotic
effects
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