A&S 217 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Aid To Families With Dependent Children, Assertiveness, Community College

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Sawhill
oProfile of collapsing black family he gave remarkably similar to current white household
oAbout 3 in 10 to white women and 7 in 10 births to African American Women are no
marital
oSawhill Class
Sharpest decline in mirage rate occurring amongst the least educated of both
blacks and whites
Having child while single is 3X more common for poor than it is for the affluent
Non- marital childbearing is not the same as teenage childbearing
15 % of no marital birth= teens ( the largest group is in their 20’s)
oTeenagers however tend not to be married
oGeographical differences
The south has higher rates of non marital child bearing
High evangelical presence leads to an increase in teenage marriage
Many births happen when individuals cohabitate ( 58% of non marital child
bearing )
As people older or white they are more likely they are co – habituating
Co – habituating with non- marital birth are fragile!!!
oHigher divorce rate if they end up getting married in the future
oThe Feminization of Poverty
Term coined by Diana Peirce in 1978
Argued poverty was rapidly becoming a female problem
Female headed households can earn a lot less than everybody else
o¼ white women headed households are poor
o40% of black women headed households are poor
o1/5 of Asian women headed households are poor
39.8% female headed households are poor as opposed to 8.2% of male
headed households
oSo what comes First?
Does single parenting lead to poverty among families?
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Divorce
1 household income
Divorce associated with downward trend in standard of living for
women
Children are distinct threat to the financial security of family
Does poverty cause single parenting ?
Less access to birth control
Financial incentive
Children provide love and significance and self worth ( fills a hole )
Or Both?
Or other variables linked to both poverty and single parenting
oUpon what do conservatives and liberals agree?
Children benefit when parents get married, stay together, and get along
This leads to increased educational outcomes, increased health
outcomes, increased social outcomes
Why?
oAbout half of these differences usually attribute to economic
resources
Supervision and attention increased and parents can
help kids
Difference in parenting and social capital
2 sets of grandparents, 2 sets of cousins etc.…
Socialization? Values? Aspirations?
Conflict and stress decreases
Instability – lots more instability in 1 parent household
than 2 parent households
oAdditional consequence of changing family structure is increasing inequality
Gender rolls
Women have a degree of economic independence
Bar for marriage is going up
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oMore expectations from men
People now want economic sufficiently prior to marriage ( marriage is
the “ cherry on top of the Sunday” )
Trying to get men to take care of household duties
Class divide in terms of attitude
oUpper class man are egalitarian and lower class males are more
traditional with their views
Jobs
Marriageable men
oPoor people men don’t hit the goals
oScarcity because of incarceration and high morality ( small pool
to begin with
oLess stigmatizing to be a single mom than it has been in the past
oMarriage is not the magic bullet it won’t eliminate poverty
Being married does not guarantee you are not poor
Likelihood of relationships succeeding is tied to class
Quality of people in marriage matters too
Look for quality of fathers
Promises I can Keep
oWhy have marriage and child bearing become so decoupled among the poor ?
oWhile members of middle class delay marriage they delay childbearing even more
oPoor also delay marriage or avoid it altogether but they have not delaying children
o8 Philadelphia neighborhoods
Areas with high poverty rates
Subjects were interviewed
Ethnographic research
No marital childbirths relevant
oWhat forces compel childbearing among the poor ?
Social world of young people
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