ART 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Systematic Code, Doric Order, Corinthian Order

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22 Oct 2016
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Hellenistic #9
Wednesday October 19
Hellenistic Period 323 - 30 BCE
Hellenistic Times
-Greek was the official bureaucratic language of Alexanders empire and the after math
-Alexander died at 33 in 321 BCE
-left no administrative structure and no accepted successor
-generals turned against one another, local leaders tried or regain lost autonomy,
empire began to beak apart
-3rd c BCE, three generals splits up vast empire into kingdoms
-Antigonus: Macedonia and mainland Greece
-Ptolemy: Egypt
-endured the longest
-capital, Alexandria — flourished as sea port and center of learning and the arts
-Seleucus: Asia minor, Mesopotamia and Persia
-2nd and 1st c BCE, kingdoms succumbed to growing empire in Rome
-Hellenistic empire fell under control of Cleopatra of Egypt
-321 BCE up until 31 BCE when the last outpost of the Hellenistic empire fell to troops
-Cleopatra died in 31 BCE, marking the end of the Hellenistic period
-Alexander’s lasting legacy was spread of Greek culture far beyond its original borders
-artists of Hellenistic period developed visions distinct from those of their classical
Greek predecessors
-we are talking about 300 years unified by a common language and certain
characteristics of style in architecture and art
- hellenistic art and architecture throws out all the rules, there are no more rules in
temple building, in the construction of new architectural forms, city planning, we see it
in sculpture in particular and the creation of new sculptural types in creating political
and social monuments
-new styles and new themes
-earlier artists sought to codify (a systematic code/ laws and rules) a generalized
artistic ideal Hellenistic artists shifted focus to the individual and the specific
!1
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Hellenistic #9
-they turned away from
-heroic to everyday
-decorous drama to emotional melodrama
-instead they appeal to the senses through luscious of lustrous surface treatment
-and use expressive subjects and poses
Temple of the Olympian Zeus, 520-510 BCE, Athens
-emphasizes the difference between classical world and Hellenistic architecture is the
temple of Athen Pathonos on the Acropolis
-begun by the architect Cossutius in 6th century BCE 175 BCE left unfinished 164
BCE completed 132 CE
-Corinthian order
-this is a big deal because this is Athens the birth place of the doric order which was
its signature
-we see a disillusion of this when we look at parthenon
-there is a loss of architectural identity that is very significant
-Athenian architecture is very carefully proportionate
-the length is 354 feet
-it is very elongated and that violates greek norms of what architecture should be life
!2
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Hellenistic #9
-the columns were taken away to make christian churches when Greece became
Christian and some of the capitals were left standing and the Ottoman turks ground
them up to make mosques — thats why not all of them are standing g
-the columns are 55 ft high
-a majestic quality and exaggerated quality to this
-does not have a sense of proportion that we find in parthenon
-135 feet wide
-proportions are rejected
-the location was in the lower part of the city not up on the highest mountain
-all this rejected the cannons of proportion for early greek architecture
-took forever to build
Theater, 4th c BCE, Epidauros
-a place for communal expression of religious beliefs through music, poetry and dance
-permeant, open-air auditorium
-tiers of seats cut into side of hill — later improved with stone
-semicircle of tiered seats built into hillside overlooking circular performance area
!3
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