ART 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: French Gothic Architecture, Suger, Chartres Cathedral

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14 Dec 2016
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Thursday, December 8, 2016
Gothic Architecture and Sculpture
INTRO
-Goths are Germanic barbarian tried
-Gothic had negative response with its lack of sensitivity
-at the time this style was ‘French work' with pointed arches for the first time
-the norm becomes the pointed, ribbed vaults, tall arcades in the nave
-triforium: gallery space for walking through
-Huge clerestory : too much stone before, to bring different light by pointing arches,
put more stained glass windows
-Stained glass
learned how to curve mortar which led to more efficient building
pinacles on the sides to deal with wind
sand ash, metallic axido heated, blown, flattened then broken, then baked together
as a solid in a kiln
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Abbey of Saint Denis
-rebuilt many times
-Abbot Suger: architect
-external buttresses to support a lot of windows
-originally painted blue, covered with stone
-holes where ribbed vaults met to suck up sound of choir
-increasingly more stilted or pointed which opens the opportunity for stain glass
windows
-faster to build a building because less tone, shows development in engineering
-buttresses not attached to outside walls
-burial church of the Kings
-Abbot Suger conceives of the church as the body of jesus with the Apse as the crown
of thorns with the transept being his outstretched arms on the cross
-he introduced this new style
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Thursday, December 8, 2016
-ribbed vaults dissolved into each other
-originally plastered over and painted with stars and inverted pots into the cross
section of the vaults, and absorbed sounds
-during this campaign of restoration, original plaster work was removed and now can
see plain brick
-long narrow columns
-no longer Roman columns with narrative scenes
-its appearance changes over the course of the day depending on how much light is
coming through
-a changing experience
-introduces the gothic and its elements
-the first original style
-it has nothing to do with ancient rome
Chartres Cathedral (Cathedral of Notre Dame), 1134, Chartres
-dedicated to the Virgin Mary
-Pilgrimage church - has tunic that Mary wore when she birthed Jesus
-flying buttresses
-originally constructed under Charlemagne, built on ruins of pagan temple
-France had been conquered by Romans
-built over about 150 years and constantly renewed
-from the reconstruction:
-the walls have been removed
-its shaped like a cross
-the transept is lower on the body of the church
-it is starting to migrant towards the center of the church now
-this was supposed to rival the greatest structures of Rome
-440 feet long, very large church j
-arches of nave arcade
-the arch opening above triumphan and large clerestory
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Thursday, December 8, 2016
-designed razed and renovated to be vaulted
-the large nave for which clergy and french monarchs passed
-people worshiped in side aisles
-entered from the South
-120 ft in height (huge)
-more than 20 ft larger than any romanesque structure
-you could build higher if you understood engineering
-flying buttresses prevent from over building the structure
-replace the buttresses of heavy barrel vaults
-only a few points of weakness in a vault, where he vault meets the side walls,
where the windows are (particularly because the windows are glass)
-top of window at clerestory, in the middle and the bottom are the points of
weakness
-concentrate buttresses at area of weakness, you are more economical with stone
-arches connected to narrow buttresses which in turn transfer the thrust of the
arches to another arch with a narrow arch on the outside
-thrust is channeled down word to the ground instead of laterally
-faster to build this because not querying as much stone, and its cheaper
-INTERIOR:
-central interior the nave
-triforium: three open structures that contain internal buttresses
-the large clerestory
-two arrow shapes (lancets) surmounted by tiny roses at the top for every bay
-the ribbed vaults have the point and come to a really acute angle so they’re not
rounded, they are aggressive shaped
-vaulting compartments channeling thrusts downward
-practical, functional, and beautiful
-large stain glass rose
-mary is prized as the rose without throne to symbolize her perfection
-42 feet in diameter
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