BIOL 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 40: Body Shape, Information Transfer, Vacuole

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6 Apr 2016
Chapter 40: Basic Principles Animal Form and Function
Form meets Function
Body shape
Aspects of size/scale
Cell Shapes
Information transfer
Case in Point: Managing Temperature
Body temperature (Master Factor- Heterotrophs)
Strategies and Personalities
Interactions with Environment
Mantra>> Diverse Forms but Common Challenges
Anatomy: the scientific study of the biological form exhibited by an organism; structure
Physiology: the scientific study of the biological processes in an organism; function
The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely correlated
Large Scale- Body Shape: Homologous or Analogous?
Seal vs. Penguin vs. Tuna (hydrodynamic form: convergent evolution for fast swimming)
Fusiform function – Comparative Analysis exemplified – enables functionality
Small Scale – Genes
Diffusion – single cell – works well in hydra for two cell layers, crossing of cell
Increase in size, diffusion no longer works the best
Increased specialization in organization as functions and structure increase
Surface area increases as a squared function but volume as a cubed function!
How does form meet function in lungs? Intestines? Kidneys?
Larger we get, better ways of capitalization of diffusion.
Similarity to fungi, excretion for absorption
Methods of absorption from the environment
Digestive System (Intestines)
Circulatory System (Lungs)
-more air vacuole sacs = increased absorption = increases surface area
Excretory System (Kidneys)
-absorbing of toxins to get rid of them
Hierarchical organization
Cells>Tissues >Organs >Organ systems
Cellular Level
Epithelial Tissues: polarized cells, apical vs basal
Tissue that line surfaces – main function
Structure correlates to function
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