PHIL 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Cheeseburger, Universal Rule, Categorical Imperative

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Moral Theories
1. Consequentialist
a. Ethical Egoism – the self-interest of an individual judging the act is taken into
a.i. Objective theory about self-interest (defined in terms of benefit )
a.ii. Problems
a.ii.1. Deals only with the consequence of actions
a.ii.1.a. Panichas can steal boots because in the end it makes
him happy and serves his best interest
a.ii.2. Theory gives inconsistent results
a.ii.2.a. It may be morally right to me if I steal from jenny but is
morally wrong for jenny if I steal from jenny
a.ii.3. Violates CRP (Consistency results principle)- problem for every
absolutistic theory
a.ii.3.a. Acceptable ethical theories have results that are the
same (no inconsistent results)
a.ii.4. Operates on a zero sum game – not giving anybody else any
reason to 0take your interests into account
b. Utilitarianism -look to the overall consequence or the greatest good for the greatest
b.i. Affirms the principle of utility
b.i.1. An act is good if it produces the greatest good
b.i.2. Takes the interest of everyone into account (therefore
does not value CRP)
b.i.3. Tries to give objective analysis of the good
b.ii. Usability
b.ii.1. Usable especially at the level of policy making
b.iii. Guide for action prior to when we act
b.iii.1. We don’t have certainty
b.iv. Rights justice
b.iv.1. Dani Ducati is a motorcyclist and we can save 4 lives by killing
Danny and distributing his organs
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