PHYS 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Ontological Argument, Cosmological Argument, Disjunctive Syllogism

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9 Aug 2016
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1. Present, Explain, and Evaluate Nagel’s Argument that Life is Absurd.
a. Present
a.i. If we treat our lives as matters of serious concern but the significance of our life
plans are always open to doubt (and we recognize this and continue to treat our
lives seriously) then life is absurd (like looking at an aunt hill )
a.ii. We treat our lives as matters of serious concern even though we recognize that
its significance of our life plans are always open to doubt
a.iii. Therefore, life is absurd
b. Explain
b.i. Premise 1
b.i.1. We understand that there is doubt that our life has real
significance and actually means something but even though we realize
this we continue to treat our lives as though they actually matter
b.i.2. Aunts continue to make the aunt hill
b.i.3. We continue to worry for exams even though in the grand
scheme of things its all trivial
b.i.4. The fact we as humans have the ability to step back and
recognize the meaningless of our lives yet still treat our lives as
meaningful is absurd
c. Evaluate
c.i. Form ?
c.i.1. Modus Peons
c.ii. Valid?
c.ii.1. Valid because if all the premises are true then the conclusion
must be true
c.iii. Sound?
c.iii.1. This is not a sound argument because though it is valid the fist
premise is false on the grounds of the significance of life being
determined by its impact
c.iv. Objections
c.iv.1. How do we actuary know the significance of our life is actually
open to doubt ?
c.iv.1.a. We know suffering = intrinsically bad even if it doesn’t
matter in the grand scheme of things
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c.iv.1.a.i. We can not doubt that ending suffering is not an
intrinsic good.
c.iv.1.a.ii. This makes it significant to end suffering despite the fact
that it may not mean much in the grand scheme of
things
2. State and Explain Wolfs account of a meaningful life Discuss what you think of Wolf’s view
a. Meaningful lives are lives of active engagement in projects of worth
b. Meaning arises when subjective attraction meets objective attractiveness
b.i. Both for meaning
b.ii. Without objective attractive is a life of what a person wants to do
b.iii. Can not merely construct own meaning by enjoying something
b.iv. You need both for a meaningful life
b.v. Examples
b.v.1. Gamer loves gaming but doesn’t impact anyone’s life therefore
because there was no impact on others this individual lead a non-
meaningful life
b.v.2. Mother Theresa lived a life that impacted many others but lived
a life of suffering therefore she did not lead a meaningful live
b.v.3. Man that works 24/7 to provide for his family yet never sees his
family and gets no enjoyment form his work does not live a meaningful
life
3. Present , Explain, Evaluate Decartes Cogito Argument
a. Present
a.i. I have convinced myself of something
a.ii. If I have convinced myself of something therefore I exist
a.iii. Therefore, I exist
b. Explain
b.i. The only way that you can think is if you exist, by convincing yourself of
something you are thinking and since you think you exist.
b.ii. Even if your are mistaken about everything in the world the fact that you are
mistaken and have conceived yourself of something proves that you exist and
have mental processes going on no matter what your true form or the true
reality is.
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c. Evaluate
c.i. Form
c.i.1. Modus pones
c.ii. Valid
c.ii.1. Yes this is valid because if all the premise are true then the
conclusion must be true
c.iii. Sound
c.iii.1. Yes this is a sound argument because it is a valid argument and
all of the premises are true
c.iv. Objection……..
4. State and explain Descartes Substance Dualism. Discuss what you think of Descartes View
a. Each person is composed of two main parts: a nonphysical ( immaterial) mind ( i.e.
soul) and a physical body
b. Each mind is essentially a thinking thing and un extended in space
c. Each body is essentially extended in space and non- thinking
d. Mind and body are able to exist independently and generally do so after death
e. Mind and body enter into a to-way causal interaction.
f. Discuss your view
f.i. What about drugs that impact the mind and therefor impact the actions and
thoughts of an individual
f.ii. How can we make sense of a non-physical thing having causation
5. Present Explain and Evaluate Jacksons Mary Argument
a. Physicalism: All facts about the world are physical facts
b. Physical facts: facts that are provided by7 physical chemical biological sciences
c. Present
c.i. Marry has complete physical knowledge about the world before her release
c.ii. Mary learns something when she is released
c.iii. If ( i ) and ( ii ) then not all facts are physical facts
c.iv. If not all facts are physical facts, then physicalism is false
c.v. Therefore, physicalism is false
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