PSYC 256 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Cogito Ergo Sum, Carl Wernicke, Paul Broca

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13 Jun 2018
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HISTORY OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: PHILOSOPHY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND
PSYCHOLOGY
Philosophical Antecedents
Plato & Rationalism (400 BC)
Using logic to understand reality
ΔReality: abstract ideas that objects represent, not concrete objects
How do we investigate reality?
o Observations can be misleading
o Knowledge through logic
Aristotle and Empiricism (300 BC)
ΔReality: concrete world of objects that we sense
)nvestigating it → knowledge through experience and observation, only way to
arrive at the truth
Descartes & Rationalism (1596-1650)
) think therefore ) am or Cogito ergo sum
Scrooge uses rationalizing
ΔReality: internal abstract idea; dualism
Essence of mind is thinking
Dualism: mind/body distinction
Locke & Empiricism (1632-1704)
Learn through observation of natural world
Physiological Antecedents
Psychophysics
Relationship between stimulus properties and psychological impressions of those
stimuli
o Ex. colors and wavelengths
How changes in light intensity, mass, pitch, etc. affect your experience of those
stimuli
Ernst Weber (mid-1800s)
Just Noticeable Difference (JND): minimum amount stimulus intensity needs to
change to produce a noticeable change in sensory experience
Weber’s Law: ΔSS =k → change in stimulus intensity initial stimulus =a
constant
Paul Broca & Carl Wernicke (late 1800s)
Studied patients with language problems due to brain damage
Localization of function: specific areas of brain are specialized for different faculties
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