PSYC 256 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Categorical Logic, Afterimage, Neural Adaptation

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13 Jun 2018
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PERCEPTION
Sensation
Reception of energy from environment and its initial encoding into nervous system
o Touch receptors, light waves, sound waves
The physiological processes that underlie information intake
Perception
Set of processes we use to recognize, organize, and make sense of sensations
received from environmental stimuli
The psychological processes involved in organizing and interpreting of sensations
Components of Perception
Distal stimulus: stimulus in outside world
Proximal stimulus: stimulus as apprehended by sensory organs (e.g., eye, nose, taste
buds, etc.; interaction between stimulus’ energy and self
o Hairs in my ear disrupted by soundwaves
Percept: internal mental representation of external stimulus; basic component in
formation of concept
Perceiving a
Stimulus
External to Internal Information
Transduction: process of translating external messages into internal language of the
brain
Problem of Transduction: how does external energy become internal information
(neural activity)?
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Transduction in Vision
Light waves enter eye via pupil and picked up by retina
Retina contains light-sensitive cells that react to light by creating neural impulses
o These cells are first line of retina detection
o Transduce light energy into electrical impulses
Retina is the only part of CNS you can see with naked eye
Anatomy of the Eye
Connected to brain through optic nerve
Blind spot doesn’t have rods and cones photoreceptor cells
Fovea: focus
Anatomy of the Retina
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Photoreceptors transduce light energy
Pupil is to the right; retina is backwards
o Light has to go through ganglion and bipolar cells before reaching
photoreceptors
Transduction in Vision
Light induces chemical reaction in photopigments in rods and cones
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