PSYC 256 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Wine Bottle, Episodic Memory, Multivac

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13 Jun 2018
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MEMORY ERRORS
Schemas
An organized knowledge structure that reflects an individual’s knowledge,
experience, and expectations about some aspect of the world; abstract way of
thinking, doing, being)
Can be used at encoding or retrieval
Fitting into already established structures
How Schemas are Used
To comprehend sentences, to understand sensations, to organize information, to
make predictions, and to foster expectations Bartlett; understanding
written/spoken language
How an episodic memory is (re)constructed depends on the semantic schema that is
active
o Interplay between episodic/semantic
Bartlett (1932)
Identified schemas as means of memory reconstruction
The War of the Ghosts serial recall paradigm
o Native american folktale
o Changes were made to the story
o Omitted information
o Simplified information for better recall
o Errors were systematic/predictively influenced
Schemas
1.
Good recall
Poor recall
Schema-consistent
Desk, chairs
Books, computer
Schema-inconsistent
Skull
Picnic basket, wine bottle
Ask participants to wait in waiting room, then ask them what they saw/remember
from the waiting room → actual experiment
2. Subjects asked to adopt a particular identity:
o Home-buyer
o Burglar
Then read a passage about two boys playing hooky from school…
Coding: Burglar Items (18)(things you could take); Homebuyer items (18)
(permanent stuff like bedroom)
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Recall #1
o
Recall #2: Switch perspectives
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o
#2: forgot 1-2 items they used to remember, but now remember 1-2 new items
Most of the time, things are typical
o Economy of memory storage
Sometimes maladaptive; over-rely on them sometimes
DRM False Memory Paradigm
At study, present S with list of related words
At test, present S with standard recognition memory test including a critical lure;
words not shown
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